g , hypotension and sensorial alterations) and chronic complicati

g., hypotension and sensorial alterations) and chronic complications, including an exacerbation of malnutrition and systemic vascular disease. Malnutrition can occur secondary not only

to erroneous dietary choices or uremia, but it may also depend on the patient’s level of tolerance to dialysis and on the dialysis modality. Despite the improvements made to dialysis techniques, the nutritional condition of elderly patients on dialysis for chronic renal failure remains a cause for concern. In this patient category, it is therefore mandatory to ensure the daily supervision of nutritional status and early control when the first signs of malnutrition appear.”
“Sour prickly pears (xoconostles) Fer-1 chemical structure are fruits from Opuntia joconostle cactus, which are cultivated in the central Mexico area. Phenolic and pigment content in various parts of O. joconostle fruits were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extraction and different semi-purified fractions were also evaluated by the DPPH+ method. Xoconostle fruits were obtained from a commercial orchard in Mexico State. Fruits were analyzed as whole fruit and each fruit part including pericarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Samples were homogenized and kept at 4 degrees C until sample

preparation. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content varied among the different parts of the fruit. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids content were found in pericarp 2.07 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g fresh weight (FW) and MLN2238 price 0.46 mg(+)catechin equivalents (CE)/g FW respectively. Seven phenolics were identified as protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic,

caffeic, vanillic and syringic acids, rutin, and quercetin. The color of the fruit parts was mainly due to the presence of betacyanins. The betacyanin concentration was higher in the endocarp (23.03 mg betanin equivalents/100 g fresh weight) than in the pericarp and mesocarp. Betacyanins were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS as betanin, isobetanin, betanidin, isobetanidin, and phyllocactin. Methanolic extracts and semi-purified fractions A (phenolics and flavonols) and B (betacyanins) of xoconostle showed high antioxidant activity mainly in the pericarp. These results suggest that check details xoconostle is a rich source of antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds and betacyanins. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We reviewed the existing literature on medical termination of pregnancy in cases of congenital uterine malformation. Is medical termination of pregnancy safe in the presence of a uterine anomaly? Can termination of pregnancy still be performed when information concerning the presence of congenital uterine malformation is not available?

The risk of adverse outcome, i.e. uterine rupture, was high in class 2 uterine anomalies, whereas the risks in classes 3-6 were negligible.

Summary of Background Data There is controversy with regard to t

Summary of Background Data. There is controversy with regard to the anatomic and histological makeup of the uncovertebral interface with some authors considering it a joint and others disc tissue. No research has

investigated the presence of pain generating neurotransmitters within the uncovertebral cartilaginous and capsular tissue.

Methods. Tissue from uncovertebral capsule and cartilage was harvested for each uncovertebral surface starting at the C2-C3 to the C6-C7 cervical segment. The tissue was placed in 4% paraformaldehyde fixative, then dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Ten micron sections were cut through the tissue blocks and mounted on slides. The tissue was rehydrated and either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) or HIF inhibitor immunostained with antisera against protein gene product 9.5

(PGP 9.5), substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP).

Results. The sample consisted of 2 unembalmed fresh male human cadavers of a mean age of 83 years. Chondrocytes and synoviocytes AZD6244 manufacturer were identified at the capsular tissue of each uncovertebral interface from C2-C3-C6-C7. Immunoreactivity for PGP 9.5, SP, CGRP, and NPY was observed at all uncovertebral interface levels in capsular tissue.

Conclusion. The presence of both synoviocytes and chondrocytes has been recorded in the present study, suggesting that the uncovertebral interface is synovial in nature. Immunoreactivity to PGP 9.5, SP, CGRP, and NPY indicates the presence of nerve fibers from both the so matic and autonomic nervous

systems. These findings suggest that the uncovertebral joints are potential pain generators in the cervical spine.”
“Abnormalities selleck in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.”
“Purpose: Numerous studies have identified several factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. However, studies on gender differences in cancer-related physical symptoms and QOL levels have yielded inconsistent results. The present study examined common symptoms (i.e., pain intensity, fatigue, and depression) in regard to their ability to predict QOL in male and female oncology patients with cancer pain.

Although this potential technique shows promising results, there

Although this potential technique shows promising results, there is

little evidence for its clinical applicability.


The combination of MRI-guided and robotic-assisted prostate GM6001 biopsy is a promising technique for prostate cancer detection. However, only limited research is performed in patients, and therefore the current clinical value of this technique is highly speculative.”
“Objective: Hemangiomas of the nasal tip (HNT) are commonly described as “”Cyrano”" or “”Pinocchio nose”". They may cause significant aesthetic and functional impairment. It is still controversial how and when HNT should be treated. The risk of severe complications like irreversible contour deformities, growth disturbance, ulcerations, and nasal obstruction may obligate a therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study is to overview and to analyze different therapeutic approaches which were practiced over the last decade in two specialized centers.

Methods: This is a retrospective study which includes the analysis of demographic parameters, extent of the lesion, therapeutic interventions, outcome, and follow-up interventions. The analysis includes a blinded evaluation of photographic series for evaluation

of the learn more extension at the time of presentation and of the final outcome.

Results: Twenty-three children with HNT were analyzed who presented from 04/01/1998 to 03/31/2009. The age at presentation ranged from 1 to 63 months. On 6 patients (26%) conventional surgery was performed, 6 (26%) were treated with Nd:YAG Apoptosis Compound Library laser, 6 (26%) were only observed, in 3 cases (13%) cryotherapy and in 2 patients (9%) treatment with Propranolol was performed. The results were evaluated between 9 months and 10.5 years after treatment

(mean: 35.5 months). Limited lesions which were only observed showed a good tendency of regression. Significant wound healing disturbance and scar formation was observed after Nd:YAG laser therapy. Secondary rhinoplasty in adulthood was recommended to two patients.

Conclusion: Limited lesions do not require therapy. The results with Propranolol are encouraging. Laser- and cryo-therapy have to be critically reevaluated. Treatment of choice for lesions that are not suitable for beta blockers and residual disease is conventional surgery. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hypodontia, a tooth developmental disease, can affect chewing and pronunciation. Mutations in the ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene can lead to both X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) and non-syndromic hypodontia (NSH). However, the mechanism by which these 2 related but different disorders are caused by the distinct mutations in EDA is unknown. In this study, we identified a novel missense mutation (c. 779 T>G) in a Chinese family with NSH via a direct sequencing approach. This mutation results in an Ile260Ser substitution in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homology domain.

Ninety-six percent of patients with epilepsy aged between 20 and

Ninety-six percent of patients with epilepsy aged between 20 and 60 drank alcoholic beverages. However, in only 25 (13.9%) patients with epilepsy was the epilepsy related to alcohol; most patients (80.6%) had no definite causes. There were no local health workers who received any formal training on epilepsy before, nor did the local health agencies provide any conventional antiepileptic drugs.

Conclusion: The prevalence rates of epilepsy in the towns of Shang Zayul and Xis Zayul of the Tibet Autonomous Region were relatively Copanlisib higher

than in other areas. The alcohol-related health problems cannot be ignored. This serious situation and the large treatment gap indicate a pressing need for medical, financial and social support in this population. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction and objectives: Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and poorly controlled risk factors, especially in patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study

was to describe the rate of blood pressure (BP) control and related risk factors.

Methods: Multicenter, cross-sectional and observational registry of patients with hypertension recruited from cardiology and primary care outpatient clinics. Controlled BP defined as < 140/90 mmHg.

Results: 55.4% of the 10 743 patients included had controlled BP and these had a slightly higher mean age. Patients with uncontrolled BP were more frequently male, with a higher prevalence of active smokers, obese patients, and patients with diabetes. The rate of controlled BP was similar in patients with or without CVD. Patients with uncontrolled BP had higher levels https://www.selleckchem.com/products/LY294002.html of blood glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and uric acid. Patients with uncontrolled BP were receiving a slightly higher mean number HDAC activity assay of antihypertensive drugs compared to patients with controlled BP. Patients with CVD were more frequently receiving a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

axis inhibitor: 83.5% vs. 73.2% (P < .01). Multivariate analysis identified obesity and current smoking as independently associated with uncontrolled BP, both in patients with or without CVD, as well as relevant differences between the two groups on other factors.

Conclusions: Regardless of the presence of CVD, 55% of hypertensive patients had controlled BP. Lifestyle and diet, especially smoking and obesity, are independently associated with lack of BP control. (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member, has been well documented as a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Myostatin, which has 376 amino acids, is synthesized as a precursor protein. Polymorphism of the myostatin gene in Makoei sheep was investigated by PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism technique (SSCP). Genomic DNA of 92 sheep was isolated from whole blood.

The aim of this study was to investigate the incremental value of

The aim of this study was to investigate the incremental value of CMR-based 3D

strain and to test the hypothesis that 3D strain is superior to 1D or 2D strain analysis in the assessment of viability using a porcine model of infarction.

Methods: Infarction was induced surgically in 20 farm pigs. Cine, late gadolinium enhancement, and CMR tagging images were acquired at 11 days before (baseline), and 11 days (early) and 1 month (late) after induction of infarct. Harmonic phase analysis was performed to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains in myocardial segments, which were defined based on the transmurality of delayed enhancement. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models of strain parameters were created and analyzed to compare the Selleck Crenigacestat overall BMS-777607 solubility dmso diagnostic accuracy of 3D strain analysis with 1D and 2D analyses in identifying the infarct and its adjacent regions from healthy myocardium.

Results: 3D strain differed significantly in infarct, adjacent, and remote segments (p < 0.05) at early and late post-MI. In univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains were significant factors (p < 0.001) in

differentiation of infarct and adjacent segments from baseline values. In identification of adjacent segments, receiver operating characteristic analysis using the 3D strain multivariate model demonstrated a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in overall diagnostic accuracy in comparison with 2D (circumferential and radial) selleck chemicals llc and 1D (circumferential) models

(3D: 96%, 2D: 81%, and 1D: 71%). A similar trend was observed in identification of infarct segments.

Conclusions: Cumulative 3D strain information accurately identifies infarcts and their neighboring regions from healthy myocardium. The 3D interrogation of myocardial contractility provides incremental diagnostic accuracy in delineating the dysfunctional and nonviable myocardium in comparison with 1D or 2D quantification of strain. The infarct neighboring regions are the major beneficiaries of the 3D assessment of regional strain.”
“Objectives: Given the growing prevalence of asthma in USA, it is important to understand its national burden from the patient’s perspective. The objective of this research is to examine the national burden of asthma and poor asthma control on health function, health perception and preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods: The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative survey, was used to estimate the impact of asthma and indicators of poor asthma control on health function, self-rated health perception and preference-based HRQL using multivariate regression methods controlling for socioeconomic, clinical and demographic characteristics.

05) by GHRH treatment in HED- fed cows, but not in LED-fed cows

05) by GHRH treatment in HED- fed cows, but not in LED-fed cows. Plasma NEFA concentration was unaffected by GHRH treatment in both HED- and LED-fed cows. We conclude that GHRH treatment of lactating Japanese Black cows stimulates endogenous GH and subsequent IGF-1 secretion and might

induce an increase in insulin resistance, irrespective of EB; however, compared with lactating dairy cows, both galactopoietic and lipolytic effects of GHRH might be insufficiently exerted Salubrinal under negative EB in lactating beef cows.”
“In this work we present detection and susceptibility measurement experiments on a single superparamagnetic Dynal bead with a diameter of 1 mu m and a magnetic moment of approximate to 4 x 10(8) mu(B). Accurate bead positioning was achieved via non-invasive AFM nanomanipulation. The detection and magnetic characterization of the bead were performed using ultra-sensitive InSb Hall devices. Single bead detection was demonstrated using a step-wise change of the dc magnetic field; measurements were performed using only the in-phase component of the total ac Hall voltage. Very clear evidence of the bead presence is demonstrated simultaneously with explicit separation of parasitic inductive signals. Additional experiments performed using a sweeping change of the dc field allowed susceptibility measurements of a single

Dynal bead. The numerical outcomes of both sweeping and stepping experiments are in a very good agreement. The method presented buy LEE011 here opens up new possibilities for the reliable and accurate detection of small magnetic moments, which is of high importance for metrological applications as well as highly sensitive biological, medical, and environmental detectors. [doi:10.1063/1.3638124]“
“The prospect of and the evaluative period for transplantation LY411575 cost can be stressful for individuals with heart failure (HF). Little is known about the impact of psychosocial factors on service utilization and health outcomes. The current study examined the impact of depression, dysthymia, and anxiety on two-yr

hospitalization and mortality among 96 individuals with HF who were evaluated for transplantation. Results revealed that only a small percentage of individuals endorsed sufficient symptomatology to meet criteria for a psychiatric, Axis I disorder (3.1% = anxiety; 2.1% = depression; 1.0% = dysthymia) although a significant proportion of the sample was prescribed an antidepressant or an anxiolytic (37%). Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between significant independent demographic, medical, and psychiatric predictors and total duration of hospitalizations; logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between predictors and mortality. An increase in anxious symptoms was associated with a decrease in total number of days hospitalized during the two-yr period following the initial evaluation.

All the Tzanck smears and 1 biopsy revealed multinucleated giant

All the Tzanck smears and 1 biopsy revealed multinucleated giant cells, consistent with herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Immunohistochemistry using specific anti-VZV antibodies (IE63 and gE) was positive on all the smears and the biopsy, whereas HSV-I and HSV-II immunolabeling was negative. VZV specific IgM+, IgG- EIA-based Quizartinib mouse serology, and positive VZV-specific IgM complement fixation test suggested primary VZV infection.

None had received varicella vaccine. None of the patients presented a history of varicella nor experienced breakthrough varicella. It was decided not to administer antiviral treatment, as the varicella lesions remained localized without any further skin extension and systemic signs. About 2 months later, EIA-serology revealed positive VZV-IgG and negative IgM levels in 5/5 patients.

Conclusion: Some patients have varicella infection that remains hidden in a pre-existent infectious and/or inflammatory dermatitis without ever presenting full-blown chickenpox. The sudden occurrence of vesicular and/or ulcerated lesions on a pre-existent dermatitis should prompt searching for

a viral infection.”
“The objective of this study was to determine if developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds had differences this website in beta-amylase 1 (Bmy1) mRNA accumulation, beta-amylase (EC activity,

beta-amylase protein accumulation, and total protein levels during late seed development from genotypes with different Bmy1 intron III alleles. Two North American malting barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) were chosen to represent the Bmy1.a and Bmy1.b alleles and, due to limited Bmy1 intron find more III allele variation in North American cultivars, two wild barleys (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) were chosen to represent the Bmy1.c and Bmy1.d alleles. Wild barleys Ashqelon (Bmy1.c) and PI 296897 (Bmy1.d) had 2.5- to 3-fold higher Bmy1 mRNA levels than cultivars Legacy (Bmy1.a) and Harrington (Bmy1.b). Levels of Bmy1 mRNA were not significantly different between cultivated or between wild genotypes. In all four genotypes Bmy1 mRNA levels increased from 17 to 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and remained constant from 19 to 21 DAA. Ashqelon and PI 296897 had more beta-amylase activity on a fresh weight basis than Legacy and Harrington at all developmental stages. beta-Amylase protein levels increased from 17 DAA to maturity in all genotypes. Total protein in grains from wild genotypes was significantly higher than cultivated genotypes at all developmental stages. Higher levels of total protein in Ashqelon and PI 296897 could explain their higher levels of beta-amylase activity, when expressed on a fresh weight basis.

In biochemical analyses, the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) a

In biochemical analyses, the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and H(2)O(2) increased significantly at 1 h, indicating MC-caused oxidative stress. Finally, H(2)O(2) decreased to the normal levels, while MDA remained at high levels. The antioxidative enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) and antioxidants (GSH) also increased rapidly at 1 h, demonstrating a quick response of the defense systems to the oxidative stress. Finally, the activity of CAT, SOD, and GPX recovered to

the CFTR inhibitor normal level, while the activity of GST and the concentration of GSH remained at a high level. This suggests that the importance of MCs detoxification by GST via GSH, and the testis of rabbit contained abundant GSH. The final recovery of ultrastructure and some biochemical indexes indicates that the defense systems finally succeeded in protecting the testis against oxidative damage. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MCs are toxic to the male rabbit reproductive system and the mechanism underlying this toxicity might to be the oxidative stress caused by MCs. Although the negative effects of

MCs can be overcome by the antioxidant system of testis in this study, the potential reproductive risks of l should not be neglected because of their wide occurrence. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 9-17. 2010.”
“The increasing detection of adrenal tumors and the availability of a more sophisticated biochemical work-up leading to rising numbers of sub-clinical Conn’s and Cushing’s syndromes coincide with a rising number of adrenalectomies worldwide. The aim of our study was to report a single institution’s click here experience with adrenal surgery.

We report data of 528 adrenalectomies, operated at our institution before and after the onset of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (1986-1994, 1995-2008). Gender, age, indication, imaging, surgical approach, operating time, histology, tumor size, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed retrospectively.

A total of 478 patients underwent adrenal surgery during the time observed. The average number of yearly adrenalectomies increased from 14 to 21 (p = 0.001)

after the onset of laparoscopic surgery. Imaging techniques showed a significant shift towards magnetic resonance imaging (p < 0.001) Crenigacestat order and preoperative assessment of tumor size was significantly correlated to malignancy: 10.8 % (11/102) and 42 % (21/50) of tumors measuring 4-6 cm and a parts per thousand yen6 cm, respectively, were malignant in the final histology report (p < 0.001). Patients operated by minimally invasive endoscopy were significantly younger (mean 49.4 years, p = 0.046), had significantly shorter operating times (mean 118 min, p < 0.001), had shorter hospital stays (mean 7.1 days, p < 0.001), and had less complications (6.9 %, p = 0.004) compared to patients resected through open procedures.

112 +/- 27 mL/min, p = 0 004 and cGFR: 77 +/- 22 mL/min/1 73 m(2)

112 +/- 27 mL/min, p = 0.004 and cGFR: 77 +/- 22 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs. 96 +/- 24 mL/min/ 1.73 m(2), p = 0.007). There was a negative correlation between GFR/cGFR and TFC in all coronary arteries. This study shows that impaired renal function is associated with SCF. Patients with SCF have worse renal function compared with patients without SCF. Copyright (C)

2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“A pH/temperature and degradable-responsive hydrogel (PSMEA) was prepared from chitosan (CS), N-acryloylglycine methyl ester (NAGME), N-acryloylglycine ethyl ester (NAGEE), acrylic acid (AA), and N-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA). The swelling properties of PSMEA were systematically investigated learn more at different temperatures, pH, and CS contents. It was found that the PSMEA demonstrated obvious pH and temperature-responsive natures. The caffeine-release behaviors showed that only 42.9% caffeine was released from PSEMA in pH 2.1 phosphate buffer solution

(PBS) after 360 min, whereas more than 71.5% caffeine was gradually diffused into pH 7.4 PBS over the same time interval. In addition, the caffeine release was much higher at 37.0 degrees C than that at 14.0 degrees C in PBS medium. The apparent degradability of PSMEA was also observed in the pH 7.4 PBS at 37.0 degrees C through the chemical cleavage of CS. As seen from the results, PSEMA seems to Adriamycin clinical trial be a potential application in the drug-delivery system controlled by the external pH value and temperature. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3297-3303, 2011″
“Our objective was to assess the value of tumor necrosis and other factors for predicting the outcome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our study comprised 328 Selleckchem Panobinostat RCC patients who were surgically treated at this hospital between 2001 and 2006. The five-year survival data was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis. The prognostic factors were evaluated with a univariate analysis using a log-rank test and multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards regression method. The mean follow-up period for these patients was 46.5 months (median 45.2 months). The univariate analysis revealed

that age, tumor stage, TNM stage, grade, tumor necrosis, and histological type were statistically significant prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis showed that the TNM stage and tumor necrosis were the most important predictive factors in the patients’ overall survival. In the TNM stage with and without tumor necrosis, the five-year overall survival rates in stages I + II were 80.5% and 89.2%, respectively (p = 0.115), where as the five-year survival rates in stages III + IV were 32.7% and 84.0%, respectively (p < 0.001). Collectively, our present data revealed that tumor necrosis was an important predictive factor for survival in advanced stage RCC. In conclusion, both the TNM stage and tumor necrosis provided the most important prognostic factors of survival in RCC.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a paradox o

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a paradox of clinical worsening of opportunistic infections in the context of response to HAART and immunological recovery. Here we present a case of oral IRIS-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) that appeared in an advanced HIV-1-infected patient introduced to HAART and was treated by surgical removal and antiretroviral

therapy. p38 MAPK assay (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: 70-75)”
“The production of smoke, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were investigated with cone calorimetry testing when low-density polyethylene (LDPE), LDPE treated with an intumescent flame retardant

(IFR), and LDPE treated with an IFR and ultrafine zinc borate (UZB) combusted under irradiation. The results of the testing showed that UZB could depress smoke production and reduce the amount of CO and CO(2). The components of the pyrolytic gas and its contents were identified and measured with pyrolysis gas see more chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) when LDPE, LDPE/IFR, and LDPE/IFR/UZB were pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C for 20 s. The Py-GC-MS results implied that UZB had an important influence on the components and contents of the pyrolytic gas of LDPE/IFR. UZB mechanisms of smoke suppression and toxicity reduction with respect to LDPE/IFR are proposed. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 443-449, 2010″
“We showed how intermetallic formation reactions can be studied under rapid heating (10(6)-10(7) K s(-1)) using x-ray microdiffraction with temporal resolution on microsecond time scales. Rapid heating was achieved by initiating an exothermic reaction in multilayer foils comprising alternating check details nanoscale layers of elemental metals. The reaction occurred in a front similar to 100 mu m wide which propagated

across the foil at similar to 1-10 m s(-1). By using synchrotron x-rays focused to a small spot (60 mu m diameter) and a fast pixel-array detector, we were able to track the evolution of phases in the reaction front during the initial heating transient, which occurred in approximately 1 ms, through cooling over a period of hundreds of milliseconds. In Al/Ni multilayer foils, the first phases to form were an Al-rich liquid and the cubic intermetallic AlNi (which likely formed by nucleation from the liquid). In foils of overall composition AlNi, this is the stable intermetallic and the only phase to form. In foils of composition Al(3)Ni(2), during cooling we observed a peritectic reaction between AlNi and the remaining liquid to form Al(3)Ni(2), which is the stable phase at room temperature and the final product of the reaction.