“Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as particip

“Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as participating in the development of osteoporosis. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is one of antioxidant enzymes responsible for the defence of cells against oxidative damage and thus for protection against age related diseases such as osteoporosis.

The aim of present study was to associate genetic variances of GPX1 enzyme with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone turnover markers and to show the influence of antioxidative defence system in genetics of osteoporosis.

We evaluated 682 Slovenian subjects: 571 elderly women and 111 elderly men. All subjects

were genotyped for the presence of GPX1 gene polymorphisms Pro198Leu and polyAla region. BMD and biochemical markers were also measured. General linear model analysis, adjusted to height, and (one-way) analysis of variance were used to Epigenetics inhibitor assess differences between the genotype. and haplotype subgroups, respectively.

The significant or borderline significant associations NCT-501 clinical trial were found between the polyAla or the Pro198Leu polymorphisms and total hip BMD (0.018; 0.023, respectively), femoral neck BMD (0.117; 0.026, respectively) and lumbar spine BMD (0.032; 0.086,

respectively), and with biochemical bone turnover markers such as plasma osteocalcin (0.027; 0.025, respectively) and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen concentrations (0.114; 0.012, respectively) in whole group. Haplotype analysis revealed that the 6-T

haplotype is associated significantly with VRT752271 low BMD values (p < 0.025) at all measured locations of the skeleton, and with high plasma osteocalcin concentrations (p = 0.008).

This study shows for the first time that the polymorphisms polyAla and Pro198Leu of the GPX1 gene, individually and in combination, are associated with BMD and therefore may be useful as genetic markers for bone disease. Moreover, it implies the important contribution of the oxidative stress to pathogenesis of osteoporosis.”
“The Doppler Tei index is an independent predictor of outcomes in adult heart failure. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) may be a superior method to measure the Tei index in children because it is less affected by heart rate variability. We hypothesized that the TDI Tei index reflects severity of illness in pediatric heart failure. Twenty-five pediatric heart failure patients were prospectively enrolled. Listing for heart transplantation or death were the outcomes used to define severity of illness. Baseline demographics, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and standard echocardiographic and TDI-derived parameters were analyzed to determine outcome indicators. Ten of the 25 patients (40 %) were listed for transplantation. There were no deaths. Multivariate analysis combining age, heart rate, standard echocardiographic parameters, and BNP resulted in shortening fraction (p = 0.002) as the best indicator of listing for transplantation (R (2) = 0.32).

In the present paper, we summarize the available behavioural, ele

In the present paper, we summarize the available behavioural, electrophysiological and neuroimaging results regarding the spatial selectivity of FAE and discuss their implications for the visual stability of object representations across saccadic eye movements.”
“The time-resolved response of Arabidopsis thaliana towards changing light and/or

temperature at the transcriptome and metabolome level is presented. Plants grown at 21 degrees C with a light intensity of 150 mu E m(-2) sec(-1) were either kept at this condition or transferred into seven different environments (4 degrees C, darkness; 21 degrees C, darkness; 32 degrees C, darkness; 4 degrees C, 85 mu E m(-2) sec(-1); 21 degrees C, 75 mu E m(-2) sec(-1); 21 degrees C, 300 mu E m(-2) sec(1)(-); 32 degrees C, 150 mu E m(-2) sec(-1)). Samples were taken before (0 min) and at 22 time points after PLX4032 supplier transfer resulting in (8x) 22 time points covering both a linear and a logarithmic time series totaling 177 states. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows that individual conditions (defined by temperature and light) diverge into distinct trajectories at condition-dependent

buy Vorinostat times and that the metabolome follows different kinetics from the transcriptome. The metabolic responses are initially relatively faster when compared with the transcriptional responses. Gene Ontology over-representation analysis identifies a common response for all changed conditions at the transcriptome level during the early response phase (5-60 min). Metabolic networks reconstructed via metabolite-metabolite correlations reveal extensive environment-specific rewiring. Detailed analysis identifies conditional connections between amino acids and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Parallel analysis of transcriptional changes strongly support a model

where in the absence Buparlisib ic50 of photosynthesis at normal/high temperatures protein degradation occurs rapidly and subsequent amino acid catabolism serves as the main cellular energy supply. These results thus demonstrate the engagement of the electron transfer flavoprotein system under short-term environmental perturbations.”
“Isolated Whipple disease of the central nervous system is a rare occurrence. Migratory arthralgias and gastrointestinal problems, including malabsorption, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss, are common presenting symptoms.

For those patients with systemic signs and symptoms of Whipple disease, 6% to 43% will have clinically manifested CNS involvement that may include alterations in personality, ataxia, and dementia. We report our experience with a patient, who was successfully treated for Whipple disease 12 years prior to presentation and had a magnetic resonance image of the brain that revealed two solitary lesions resembling a tumor upon presentation.

Results The correlation between the FEG and the plurimeter

Results. The correlation between the FEG and the plurimeter

was excellent (r > 0.99, P < 0.0001), although some accuracy AZD1208 chemical structure was lost at extremes of range. The mean correlation between the first and second measurements was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient(2,1) 0.92, P < 0.0001; range, 0.89-0.95). The mid-Cobb angle showed the least absolute angular difference from, and was highly correlated with, the FEG angle (r = 0.81, P < 0.01).

Conclusion. The FEG demonstrated excellent accuracy and test-retest reliability and correlated very well with the Cobb angle. The FEG measurement seemed to correspond most closely with the Cobb angle measured between the middle of the FEG end blocks.”
“In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with

a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information.”
“Goats buy Cyclopamine can act as reservoirs for tuberculosis (TB) infection. The main etiological agents of TB in goats are Mycobacterium caprae and Mycobacterium bovis and they infect also a wide range of domestic and wild animals and humans. Control programmes

based mainly on the application of single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and SCIT respectively) tests are being implemented in certain regions of Spain with a high density of caprine flocks as Castilla y Leon, including goats with epidemiological relationship with cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the buy Napabucasin performance of the intradermal tests in naturally TB-infected caprine flocks from this region. The study was performed using data from 17,450 goats in 54 different flocks that were classified as TB-infected in the control programmes executed in 2010 and 2011. Data from 1237 goats from 7 dairy flocks depopulated after the first intradermal testing were used to estimate the sensitivity (Se) using bacteriology as the gold-standard. Overall Se of the SIT test using the severe interpretation was 43.9% (CI 95%, 40.4-47.4) and decreased to 38.8% (CI 95%, 35.5-423) using the standard interpretation. Overall Se of the SCIT test ranged between 21.3% (CI 95%, 17.6-25.4) and 7% (CI 95%, 4.9-9.8) depending of the interpretation criteria.

4%) followed by 9qh-variants (23 9%), variants of 9ph (11 4%), ce

4%) followed by 9qh-variants (23.9%), variants of 9ph (11.4%), cenh (8.2%), and dicentric- (3.8%) and duplication-variants (3.3%). For reasons of simplicity, a new short nomenclature for the yet reported 24 heteromorphic patterns of chromosome BB-94 cell line 9 is suggested. Six breakpoints involved in four of the 24 variants could be narrowed down using locus-specific probes.

Conclusions: Based on this largest study ever done in carriers of chromosome 9 heteromorphisms, three of the 24 detailed variants were more frequently observed in Western

than in Eastern Europe. Besides, there is no clear evidence that infertility is linked to any of the 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic variants.”

To compare clinical success, functional capacity, and quality of life during 12 months

after revascularization or supervised exercise training in patients with intermittent claudication.

Materials and Methods:

This study had institutional review board approval, and all patients gave written informed BEZ235 in vivo consent. Between September 2002 and September 2005, 151 consecutive patients who presented with symptoms of intermittent claudication were randomly assigned to undergo either endovascular revascularization (angioplasty-first approach) (n = 76) or hospital-based supervised exercise (n = 75). The outcome measures were clinical success, functional capacity, and quality of life after 6 and 12 months. Clinical success was defined as improvement in at least one category in the Rutherford scale above the pretreatment level. Significance of differences between the groups was assessed with the unpaired t test, chi(2) test, or Mann-Whitney U test. To adjust outcomes for imbalances of baseline values, multi-variable regression analysis was performed.


Immediately after the start of

treatment, patients who underwent revascularization improved more than patients who performed exercise in terms of clinical success (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 39; 99% confidence interval [CI]: 11, 131; P < .001), but this advantage was lost after 6 (adjusted LY2835219 cell line OR, 0.9; 99% CI: 0.3, 2.3; P = .70) and 12 (adjusted OR, 1.1; 99% CI: 0.5, 2.8; P = .73) months. After revascularization, fewer patients showed signs of ipsilateral symptoms at 6 months compared with patients in the exercise group (adjusted OR, 0.4; 99% CI: 0.2, 0.9; P < .001), but no significant differences were demonstrated at 12 months. After both treatments, functional capacity and quality of life scores increased after 6 and 12 months, but no significant differences between the groups were demonstrated.


After 6 and 12 months, patients with intermittent claudication benefited equally from either endovascular revascularization or supervised exercise. Improvement was, however, more immediate after revascularization.

Polymers (methylcellulose, sodium alginate, and chitosan) were pr

Polymers (methylcellulose, sodium alginate, and chitosan) were precipitated on the surface of cefpodoxime proxetil using sodium citrate and calcium chloride as salting-out agents. The pure drug and the prepared microparticles with

different concentrations of polymer (0.05-1.0%) were characterized in terms of solubility, drug content, particle size, thermal CCI-779 datasheet behavior (differential scanning calorimeter), surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. The in vivo performance was assessed by pharmacokinetic study. The dissolution studies demonstrate a marked increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with pure drug. The considerable improvement in the dissolution rate of cefpodoxime proxetil from optimized microparticle was attributed to the wetting effect of polymers, altered surface morphology, and micronization of drug particles. The optimized microparticles exhibited excellent stability on storage at accelerated condition. The in vivo studies revealed that the optimized formulations provided improved pharmacokinetic parameter in rats as compared with pure drug. The particle size of drug was drastically reduced during formulation process of microparticles.”

Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission intensity. Antibodies are

routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method PR-171 clinical trial would HSP990 provide extra utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral infections. In this study, antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens were compared between blood and saliva samples from the same individuals in unlinked surveys conducted in Tanzania and The Gambia.

Methods: In Tanzania, 53 individuals provided paired fingerprick blood and saliva sample using two commercially available sampling devices. In the Gambia, archived plasma and saliva samples collected from 200 children in the Farafenni area in a cross-sectional survey were analyzed.

IgG antibodies against P. falciparum antigens, Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-1(19)) and Apical membrane Antigen (AMA-1) were measured by ELISA in paired saliva and blood samples from both sites. Antibody levels were compared as continuous optical density (OD) values and by sero-positivity.

Results: Significant correlations between saliva and plasma antibody levels were seen in Tanzania for both antigens, AMA-1(r(2) range 0.93 to 0.89, p < 0.001) and MSP-1(19) (r(2) range 0.93 to 0.75, p < 0.001), with a weaker correlation for results from The Gambia (r(2)range 0.64 to 0.63, p < 0.01).

001) More risperidone-treated subjects

001). More risperidone-treated subjects MLN4924 (14.9%) than ziprasidone-treated subjects (4.2%) reported weight gain >= 7%. Akathisia and somnolence in the ziprasidone group and akathisia and insomnia in the risperidone group were the most common side effects. Treatment-related/treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.7% and 71.1% of ziprasidone-treated and risperidone-treated subjects, respectively.

Conclusion: In Chinese subjects, ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone, with less weight gain and less prolactin elevation.”
“Introduction Indications for the application of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from alternative donors have remarkably broadened in scope;

however, the incidence of infections that lead to failure of HSCT, such as human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis, has also increased. Methods We analyzed risk factors for symptomatic

HHV-6 reactivation find more and the development of HHV-6 encephalitis in 140 consecutive adult patients who received allogeneic HSCT at our institution. Stem cell sources for the recipients were as follows: related-donor bone marrow in 40, related-donor peripheral blood in 5, unrelated bone marrow in 67, and unrelated cord blood in 28. Results Symptomatic HHV-6 reactivation occurred in 22 patients (16%), and 11 patients manifested encephalitis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified cord blood cell transplantation (CBT) as an independent predictor of HHV-6 reactivation (P=0.008). Hyponatremia or hypernatremia at the time of HHV-6 reactivation was detected before the development of HHV-6 encephalitis in 2 or 4 patients, respectively. Two patients died of HHV-6 encephalitis

and 6 patients died of relapse of underlying diseases. Survival analysis identified higher risk of the disease (P=0.021) and HHV-6 encephalitis (P=0.003) as independent risk factors for reduced overall survival. Conclusion In cases involving CBT or unrelated-donor transplantation, patients should be carefully monitored for the symptomatic reactivation of HHV-6.”
“Objectives: This article addresses the clinical role for ziprasidone used adjunctively with a mood stabilizer in maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. This review also addresses the Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor strengths and limitations of design features in adjunctive studies of second-generation antipsychotic drugs added to mood stabilizers.

Methods: The principal study relevant to this review enrolled subjects who were >= 18 years of age, experiencing a recent or current manic or mixed bipolar I episode, with at least moderately severe current manic symptoms. To meet criteria for randomization to 6 months maintenance treatment, patients had to have failed a short course of treatment with either lithium or valproate and achieved benefit with added ziprasidone for 8 consecutive weeks.

6% The frequency of neurologic manifestations in PSS varies wide

6%. The frequency of neurologic manifestations in PSS varies widely from 0% to 60%.

Methods: We report the characteristics of PSS patients with neurologic involvement seen at a single tertiary hospital

in Singapore. Eight consecutive women (median age, 51 years [range, 38-67 years]) with neurologic manifestations of PSS seen between March 2009 to June 2011 were followed up for a mean duration of 19 months from the onset of neurologic manifestations.

Results: Six of 8 patients with neurosjogren had their neurologic manifestation at time of PSS diagnosis. The lag times of neurologic manifestations from PSS diagnosis for the remaining 2 patients were 9 and 30 years, respectively. Sicca symptoms were not readily volunteered as a presenting complaint in the majority of patients. All Selleck Bafilomycin A1 our patients received early aggressive therapy with pulse corticosteroids and intravenously administered cyclophosphamide. The

mean duration from initial presentation to initiation of treatment was 11 days (1-26 days). All achieved good recovery regardless of the type or site of neurologic check details involvement, initial erythrocyte sedimentation rate, immunoglobulin and complement levels.

Conclusions: Neurologic disease, when present, is a strong contributor to disease activity and damage. Confirmatory tests should be conducted early regardless of the presence of sicca symptoms. Vigilance for the development of new neurologic symptoms is imperative even

in chronic, apparently stable patients. It is likely that early initiation of treatment contributed to good recovery in our patients.”
“Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiological aspects of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and to evaluate the different therapeutic possibilities LY2603618 order as well as the percentage of survival.

Study Design: A retrospective, meta-analytic, observational study was carried out by selecting a total of 13 articles, which provided a sample size of 263 cases of patients who had been diagnosed with ACC in the minor salivary glands.

Results: ACC was found to be more common among women (56.5%) and the average age at diagnosis was 55.26 years old. The primary location of the tumor was in the palate in 57% of the cases, the predominant pattern being cribiform. The treatment of choice was therapy combined with surgery and radiotherapy in 62.7% of the subjects. The overall survival rate was 70.76% and 56.76%, at 5 and 10 years respectively.

Conclusions: Early detection of adenoid cystic carcinoma is necessary in order to enable making an earlier prognosis and thus enable a better quality of life for the patient.”
“The purpose of this study was to define a population of visceral heterotaxy and to investigate the incidence of bacterial sepsis in the current era of universal pediatric pneumococcal immunization.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reflects a number of new technol

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reflects a number of new technologies designed to reduce CO2 emissions, but which may have much broader environmental implications than greenhouse gas emissions. This paper considers a wider range of pollutants from a full life-cycle perspective, illustrating a methodology for assessing environmental impacts

using source-apportioned effects based impact factors calculated by the national scale UK Integrated Assessment Model,(UKIAM). Contrasting illustrative scenarios for the deployment of CCS towards 2050 are presented LGX818 supplier which compare the life-cycle effects of air pollutant emissions upon human health and ecosystems of business-as-usual, deployment of CCS and widespread uptake of IGCC for power generation. Together with estimation of the transboundary impacts we discuss the benefits of an effects based approach to such assessments in relation to emissions based techniques. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND The treatment of periungual warts is a therapeutic challenge. Various treatment modalities can be ineffective and may cause scarring

and permanent nail changes.

OBJECTIVES A prospective AZD0530 in vivo pilot study to investigate the efficacy and safety of a low concentration (0.1 U/mL) of bleomycin in the treatment of periungual warts.

METHODS Periungual warts were injected with bleomycin (0.1 U/mL) every 4 weeks until elimination of the lesions or until the injections were discontinued because of click here adverse effects. Bleomycin was administered using

the translesional multipuncture technique.

RESULTS We recruited 15 patients with periungual warts from March 2007 to March 2008. Thirteen patients were male (86.6%); median age was 30. Seven patients (46.6%) demonstrated complete clearance 1 month after the first injection; two required two treatment sessions. Thirteen (86.6%) patients had complete clearance of the treated wart at the 6-month follow-up with only one injection. Wart recurrence was observed in two patients. All patients were followed for 6 months after the initial treatment. No significant long-term adverse effects were noted. Only one patient demonstrated mild postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, which resolved after 1 month, and nine (60%) had localized moderate pain for 2 to 3 days after the injection.

CONCLUSION Translesional multipuncture treatment with a low concentration (0.1 U/mL) of bleomycin is an effective modality for periungual warts that results in minimal side effects. Larger controlled studies are needed.”
“High density of crystal defects is formed in Si layers during their growth on the nanostructured surface composed of dense arrays of Ge islands grown on oxidized Si substrates.

However, treatments with TBTCl resulted in a dose-dependent incre

However, treatments with TBTCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum E2 concentration of the mice on PND 84. Administration LY3039478 of TBTCl also decreased levels of serum luteinizing hormone and intratesticular E2 on PND 84. In addition, mice exposed to 0.05 mg/kg TBTCl exhibited an increase in body weight in the late stage of the experiment.

These results indicate that treatment with low doses of TBTCl could disturb hormone homeostasis and body weight gain in rodents, and exposure to different levels of TBTCl might have different effects on changing some physiologic parameters. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 26: 307-314, 2011.”
“Naringenin is a bioactive flavanone containing

antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. The inhibitory effects oil hyaluronidase of naringenin and its novel derivatives were evaluated. Among these flavonoids at 200 mu M concentration, 7-O-butyl naringenin had the highest inhibitory effect oil hyaluronidase with 44.84%. In addition, For naringenin at concentrations of 0, 150, and 190 mu M, the apparent Michaelis constants ((app)K(m)) were calculated to be 0.60 +/- 0.02, 0.43 +/- 0.02, and 0.41 +/- 0.01 mg/mL of substrate, respectively; for 7-O-butyl naringenin at 0, 20, and 30 mu M concentrations, those were 0.44 +/- 0.03 Fer-1 in vivo and 0.27 +/- 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The V(max) values at 150 and 190 GKT137831 clinical trial mu M naringenin were 0.59 +/- 0.02 and 0.56 +/- 0.01 mg/mL/min, respectively; and those at 20 and 30 mu M 7-O-butyl naringenin were 0.50 +/- 0.02 and 0.33 +/- 0.02 mg/mL/min, respectively. However, the slopes of each inhibitory reaction were not significantly different. Therefore, naringenin and 7-O-butyl naringenin were shown to be uncompetitive inhibitors. These results demonstrate the potential use of 7-O-butyl naringenin as all anti-inflammatory substance.”
“Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde mainly by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase

in the liver, while mainly by the action of catalase in the brain. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 metabolizes acetaldehyde into acetate in both organs. Gene specific modifications reviewed here show that an increased liver generation of acetaldehyde (by transduction of a gene coding for a high-activity liver alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1*B2) leads to increased blood acetaldehyde levels and aversion to ethanol in animals. Similarly aversive is an increased acetaldehyde level resulting from the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) synthesis (by an antisense coding gene against aldh2 mRNA). The situation is diametrically different when acetaldehyde is generated in the brain.

As the implanted child grows up, managing in the world of hearing

As the implanted child grows up, managing in the world of hearing people may become more complex. During adolescence, the teenager copes with many issues, including identity, socialization with the peer group, and managing in the school setting. These issues may be even more challenging for the adolescents using a cochlear implant. This study was designed to shed light on how adolescents with cochlear implants experience coping with the issues mentioned.


Twelve teenagers (14-18 years old), fairly similar to the entire adolescent implanted population at the center at which the study was conducted, participated in the study. They had been unilaterally find more or bilaterally implanted at differing ages. The participants filled out a questionnaire dealing with their functioning in the educational setting, their social preferences and functioning, and their identity as hearing or deaf. The results were analyzed using the principles of thematic analysis.

Results: At school, some click here reported better achievements than others but they all expressed some difficulty functioning in class mainly in situations involving several speakers. From a social point of view, some reported a preference for association with normal hearing peers, whereas others favored hard-of-hearing friends, and one had no preference. Of those who touched on the topic of self-identity, one referred to herself as deaf, eight defined themselves as hard-of-hearing, and two consider themselves


Conclusions: From the responses of these teenagers, it is clear that adolescents with cochlear implants are a heterogeneous group. Parents and teachers should be

aware that adolescents with implants, even when successful academically, may experience difficulties in the classroom setting. Most of the participants in this study learning in a mainstream setting, preferred social relationships with hearing peers (to hard of hearing/deaf). The responses of these adolescents with cochlear Selleck JNK-IN-8 implants support the conjecture that they have both a hearing identity and a deaf identity, which may be expressed at varying intensities depending on the situation at the time. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole after a single intravenous dose of 30 mg was determined in 10 healthy volunteers and 10 peptic ulcers patients. In this work, a liquid-liquid extraction and enrichment method with RP-HPLC determination route was taken with high sensitivity and low limit detection of 5 ng/mL. The concentration-time curves in the two groups were best fitted to a two-compartment model, but their main kinetic parameters were remarkably different between healthy and ulcers volunteers. The mean maximum plasma concentration (C-max) and area under the curve (AUC(0 -> t)) were increased from 975.8 ng/mL to 1298.7 ng/mL and from 1439 ng.h/mL to 2301 ng.h/mL, respectively, and peak time (t(max)) decreased from 036 h to 0.26 h.