For each data set, outcome was assessed by mortality, postoperative morbidity, and Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Prognostic factors, including body weight and body mass index, were tested for their effect on these outcomes using multivariable logistic regression.
RESULTS: For patients undergoing general cranial and spinal neurosurgery, independent predictors of morbidity and mortality were age, American Society of Anesthesia class, disseminated
malignancy, emergency surgery, and increased duration of surgery. For patients with SAH, score on the Glasgow Outcome Scale was associated with age and admission Glasgow SRT1720 Coma Scale score. In the tirilazad data set, multiple factors were associated with score on the Glasgow Outcome Scale, but, as with the other 2 data sets, body weight had no relationship to outcome.
CONCLUSION: Obesity may have less effect on the outcome of patients with mainly cranial neurosurgical disease and aneurysmal SAH than it does on patients undergoing other types of surgery.”
“Purpose: We evaluated gene expression profiles after inducing differentiation
in cultured interstitial cystitis and control urothelial cells.
Materials and Methods: Bladder biopsies were taken from patients with interstitial cystitis and controls, that is women undergoing surgery for stress incontinence. Primary cultures were grown in keratinocyte growth medium with supplements. To induce differentiation in some plates Foretinib research buy the medium was changed to Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s minimal essential medium-F12 (Media Tech, Herndon, Virginia) with supplements. RNA was analyzed with Affymetrix (R) chips. Three patients with nonulcerative interstitial cystitis were compared with 3 controls.
Results: After inducing differentiation 302 genes with a described function were altered at least 3-fold in interstitial cystitis and control cells (p <0.01). Functions of the 162 up-regulated genes included cell adhesion selleck chemicals llc (eg claudins, occludin and cingulin),
urothelial differentiation, the retinoic acid pathway and keratinocyte differentiation (eg skin cornified envelope components). The 140 down-regulated transcripts included genes associated with basal urothelium (eg p63, integrins beta 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6, basonuclin 1 and extracellular matrix components), vimentin, metallothioneins, and members of the Wnt and Notch pathways. When comparing interstitial cystitis control cells after differentiation, only 7 genes with a described function were altered at least 3-fold (p <0.01). PI3, SERPINB4, CYP2C8, EFEMP2 and SEPP1 were decreased, and AKRIC2 and MKNK1 were increased in interstitial cystitis cases.
Conclusions: Differentiation associated changes occurred in interstitial cystitis and control cells.