The recent development of drugs with greater selectivity SBC-115076 molecular weight for individual receptor subtypes has allowed for rapid advancements in our understanding of this system. Use of these drugs in combination with animal models entailing selective reward measures (i.e. intracranial self-stimulation, drug self-administration, conditioned place preference) have resulted in a greater understanding of the pharmacology of reward-related processing and behaviour (particularly regarding drugs of abuse). The putative roles of each 5-HT receptor subtype in the pharmacology of reward are outlined and discussed here. It is concluded that the
actions of 5-HT in reward are receptor subtype-dependent (and thus should not be generalized) and that all studied subtypes appear to have a unique profile which is determined by content (e.g. receptor function, localization – both throughout the brain and GSK2879552 purchase within the synapse) and context (e.g. type of behavioural paradigm, type of drug). Given evidence of altered reward-related processing and serotonergic function in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and addiction, a clearer understanding
of the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this context may lead to improved drug development and therapeutic approaches. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Multiple subsequent procedures directed at the arch and/or the left ventricular outflow tract are frequently required after interrupted aortic arch repair. We the investigated patterns and factors associated with these subsequent procedures and mortality.
We reviewed the data from 447 patients with interrupted aortic arch at 33 institutions enrolled from 1987 to 1997. We classified the subsequent procedures by type (catheter-based or surgical) and focus (arch, left ventricular outflow tract, and “”other”" cardiovascular lesions). We used competing risks and modulated renewal analysis to explore subsequent procedures.
Results: There were see more 158 subsequent arch and 100 left ventricular outflow tract procedures. Freedom from death at 21 years was 60% overall. The risk of additional subsequent arch procedures decreased after the first subsequent arch procedure in the acute phase, but did not significantly change in the chronic phase. The risk of additional subsequent left ventricular outflow tract procedures increased after the first subsequent left ventricular outflow tract procedure in the chronic phase. The risk factors for subsequent arch procedures and mortality, but not for subsequent outflow track procedures, were related in a complex way to previous procedures and their timing.
Conclusions: Interrupted aortic arch is a chronic disease in which patients often undergo multiple subsequent procedures with persistent risk for additional intervention and mortality.