Similar attempts to use biologically meaningful characteristics i

Similar attempts to use biologically meaningful characteristics in GSA procedure have been presented in Yoon and Deisboeck (2009) and Kim et al. (2010). Yoon et al. used MPSA PD0325901 mw to identify network components controlling Erk responses to be either transient or sustained. For this purpose, two characteristic measures were introduced, the amplitude and the duration of the Erk signal, to split all parameter sets into binary classes. In Kim

et al. Sobol’s algorithm was applied to predict the parameters that control the characteristic, related to the delay time to cell death – a biologically-relevant quantity, which was not a state variable of the model. In both studies application of GSA techniques provided a valuable insight into Vismodegib the mechanism controlling input–output behaviour

of the networks, with potential to be used for identification of biomarkers for pharmaceutical drug discovery processes. The flowchart of our GSA procedure is presented in Fig. 2. Further we briefly outline key stages of the proposed GSA procedure and illustrate how each of them was implemented for our test system – ErbB2/3 network model. Step 1: Definition of the inputs to the method In our GSA implementation the inputs to the method include: S.1.1. A kinetic model of a signalling pathway, calibrated on a set of time-series data Because of our specific interest in identification of anti-cancer drug targets and the analysis of drug resistance, our version of GSA uses as an input a kinetic model of a signalling pathway, calibrated on a particular set of time-series data. Any model calibrated in this

way should contain a set of parameters, identified from a fitting procedure, to achieve the best match between experimental curves and relevant model trajectories. Suitable data represent time course profiles of phosphorylated proteins, registered after stimulation of the signalling with relevant receptor ligands. Our ErbB2/3 network model was calibrated on the set of time course profiles of pErbB3, pErk and pAkt registered after stimulation of PE04 cells with heregulin, found in the presence and absence of anti-ErbB2 inhibitor pertuzumab (see (Faratian et al., 2009b) and Fig. S6 in Additional File 1). Note that in general GSA does not require a calibrated model as an input, but here calibration is needed to confirm the validity of the model. However, full identifiability of the model is not required. S.1.2. Definition of a set of model parameters to perturb Depending on the purpose of the analysis the set can include either all system parameters or a particular sub-set. In our analysis of the ErbB2/3 network we perturbed all model parameters, including kinetic constants and total concentrations of the signalling proteins, with exception of the parameters corresponding to the concentration of external compounds, such as receptor ligands (heregulin-β, (HRG)) and inhibitors (pertuzumab (Per)), which were fixed at their values used in the experiments.

Children are less intimidating to animals, due to their small sta

Children are less intimidating to animals, due to their small stature, and they are less able to defend themselves or escape when attacked. As a result, they are more prone to facial attacks and multiple bites on the head and neck—the most severe type of exposure with the shortest incubation period. Additionally, children are less likely to report animal exposures, such as licks or scratches from dogs and cats, to their parents. These are the main reasons why there is a higher burden of rabies in children.

Administering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to children living in areas where dog rabies is enzootic can help prevent a fatal outcome by protecting them against unreported exposures to rabies virus, and also from potential failures associated Panobinostat molecular weight with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) due to delayed or learn more incomplete PEP. According to the current WHO recommendations, only two additional doses of rabies vaccine are necessary, in case of an exposure to rabies, for protection of those who previously received a complete pre- or post-exposure immunization course, and, most importantly, no rabies immunoglobulin administration is required. A rabies PrEP pilot program for school children is currently under way in the province of Camarines Sur, located

in the Bicol Region in Luzon. The program was initiated in the municipality of Cabusao, where canine rabies is endemic and the incidence of dog bites and rabies deaths in children is particularly high. The program, which is part of the Philippines National Rabies Elimination Plan, integrates education on rabies prevention in the elementary school curriculum; it includes increased dog vaccination coverage and improved access to PEP, in addition to PrEP in school children. Three years after its implementation, the success of the pilot project is evidenced

by the fact that 77% of dogs have been vaccinated and no human rabies deaths have been recorded in Cabusao for the last two years. The program is currently being expanded to include the L-NAME HCl adjacent municipalities. AREB members agreed that the results of the program currently implemented in Camarines Sur, in addition to the published results of the clinical trials conducted in Thailand [7] and in India [8], have demonstrated that administration of PrEP in school children is a safe and feasible strategy, which brings significant benefit to the community by preventing deaths in children who otherwise may have died from this horrific disease. Considering that protecting vulnerable children from rabies is a public health duty, AREB members strongly recommend PrEP for children living in areas where canine rabies is enzootic.

However, IL-4 was also detected providing an evidence for a Th2-m

However, IL-4 was also detected providing an evidence for a Th2-mediated immune response. Rothman et al. [40], analyzing a tetravalent inactivated dengue vaccine, also detected high levels IFN-γ, but no IL-4 after the stimulation with dengue virus. We suggest that our high levels of IL-10 can be associated with a Th2 pattern immune response, it is accepted that this type of response is able Lonafarnib ic50 to induce a strong antibody production. However, we

did not evaluate the production of IgG1 versus IgG2a antibodies and so we cannot confirm the shift of immune response in favor of Th2 pattern. The cellular proliferation assay, accessed by flow cytometry, evaluated the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with DENV-4-DNAv, DENV-4 (positive control), and pCI (negative control). Spleen cells of all groups of immunized animals presented find more a significant proliferation

in the presence of lymphocyte mitogen concanavalin A, compared to cells that were not stimulated (media stimulation). When specifically stimulated with DENV-4, the spleen cells from DENV-4-DNAv-immunized mice proliferated in a significant higher percentage than cells from pCI-immunized animals (negative control) and did not exhibited a significant difference in proliferation compared to the cells of the animals in the DENV-4-immunized group. Taking together, these data confirmed that the DENV-4 and DENV-4-DNAv were capable of inducing a specific immune response in the immunized mice. Data on T cell response after immunization against dengue are scarce, mainly because most of the studies on dengue vaccine development focus their search for a specific immune response on neutralizing antibodies [35]. Here we show a

positive performance of DENV-4-DNAv vaccine concerning its ability to induce specific T cell response, antibody production and protection after challenge. The challenge experiments show that 80% of the mice immunized with DENV-4-DNAv were protected from the disease induced by the intracerebral inoculation with lethal doses of DENV-4, the same percentage observed in DENV-4 immunized mice. On the other hand, in pCI and PBS-inoculated animals, the protection rate was 20% and 0%, respectively. The observation that 20% Adenosine of the inoculated mice in the DENV-4 and DENV-4-DNAv died after challenge despite the fact that all of them developed neutralizing antibodies might be explained by the animal model used in dengue vaccine experiments. The animal model most frequently used to test the efficacy of dengue vaccines during dengue vaccine development is based in intracerebral inoculation of mice with a mouse-brain-adapted dengue virus. However, this model does not represent a natural disease as encephalitis is not commonly associated with dengue infections.

Then, in 1996, it was recommended for children up to 15 years It

Then, in 1996, it was recommended for children up to 15 years. It was only in 2001 that the National Immunization Program

was extended to all teenagers up to 19 years of age [2]. Recent studies have demonstrated high hepatitis B vaccination coverage among Brazilian children and adolescents, with rates as high as 98% in South Brazil [3], [4], [5] and [6]. However, current adult vaccination coverage data consists only of estimates based on the number of doses administered among children less than 12 months of age and the estimated cohort. The achievement of high vaccination coverage in children, adolescents and adults could result in substantial changes in the hepatitis B infection panorama for the near future. Knowing the actual vaccination coverage in adults is important for the evaluation and improvement of current prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the HBV vaccination selleckchem coverage and HBV immunity in a population of young adult Air Force conscripts in the metropolitan

region of Florianópolis (MRF), Santa Catarina, South Brazil. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken to determine vaccination coverage and HBV immunity in young adult males in the MRF, Santa Catarina. Apoptosis inhibitor The studied population consisted of all conscripts of the Brazilian Air Force at the Air Base of Florianópolis during a 1-year period beginning in June 2009. Military service is mandatory in Brazil, and every male must enroll for service at the selection commission in the year he turns 18, regardless of level of education or socioeconomic status. Each commission is responsible for the conscripts residing in a specific region according to the number of inhabitants of the location. All conscripts were invited to participate in Oxymatrine the study upon their arrival at the Air Force Base.

The invitation was extended before any evaluation or test to minimize selection bias. To successfully estimate vaccination coverage and HBV immunity in this population a minimum sample size of 289 volunteers was calculated to be sufficient at a 95% confidence interval (CI) and 0.05 alpha error (using an expected probability of HBV vaccination of approximately 75%) [7] and [8]. Approval for the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (protocol 136/2009), and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. A self-administered standard questionnaire, adapted from one previously established and tested [9], was provided to each subject. The questionnaire asked for socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, marital status, highest level of education achieved by the subject and his parents, residency, occupation and household monthly income.

“The East Indian sandalwood tree, Santalum album L (a San

“The East Indian sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. (a Santalaceae member) is learn more a woody, tropical tree acclaimed for costliest heartwood and the essential oil obtained from it. Upon steam-distillation the heartwood yields precious sandalwood oil that has over 90% santalols (α- and β-santalols and their sesquiterpenoid isomers). 1 The sesquiterpenoid rich sandalwood essential oil is accumulated beyond

15 years of growth of the tree. The yield ranges from 2.5 to 6% depending on the age of the tree, the color of the heartwood, individual tree understudy, sampling site within the tree and the environment of growth. 2 Reported sandalwood essential oil constituents are sesquiterpenoids, 3 triterpenoids and phenylpropanoids. 4 The major essential oil components are ‘santalane-backbone bearing’ sesquiterpenoids as santalenes and santalols. 1, 3, 5 and 6 However, in sandalwood oil α-santalol is more abundant (46%) than β-santalol (20%) 7, 8 and 9 although both differ in their stereochemistry and biological activity. However, reported literature on total volatile constituents of this tropical essential oil-yielding tree is scanty. Besides, it is highly likely that the non-sesquiterpenoid constituents, other than santalols could play critical roles in several ethnopharmacological and therapeutic properties. The GC–MS profiles of commercially available sandalwood oil obtained by the process of steam-distillation constitute one of the first reports

in this direction. 1 Previously conducted investigations BMN 673 cell line on heartwood volatiles of sandalwood tree focused mostly on santalol biosynthetic pathway intermediates. 6 In lieu of the available limited information on the wood volatiles, in this study, we investigated the solvent extractable volatiles from the matured heartwood by GC–MS. The heartwood of a 15-year-old tree grown in the Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur campus, was bored at 100 cm height from the ground and

chips/powders were collected and air dried for 48 h. Solvent extraction was done in eluotropic series (n-pentane, n-hexane, chloroform and diethyl ether) in 500 ml volume Erlenmeyer flasks, for 12 h each, at 25 ± 5 °C, with intermittent shaking no in a 10% (w/v) ratio of plant materials to solvent. During extraction 0.01% (w/v) BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) was added as a synthetic antioxidant to protect the phytochemicals from auto oxidation and served as an internal standard. Obtained extracts were dried over Na2SO4, pooled and were concentrated in vacuuo, in a rotary evaporator (N–N Series, Eyela, Tokyo) at 40 °C. The volatile yield was determined by gravimetric method and was expressed as percentage of starting plant material. The extracts were reconstituted in n-hexane and proceeded for GC–MS analysis. The pooled volatile fraction was analyzed by GC–MS using a Thermo Trace GC Ultra™ gas chromatograph system, equipped with a 30 m (l) × 0.25 mm (i.d.), 0.

Positive controls were purchased and quantified

and inclu

Positive controls were purchased and quantified

and included on each plate. Log-transformed values of test samples were analyzed using linear regression and compared to a standard curve. Samples for a single subject obtained at several time-points were Verteporfin datasheet tested on the same ELISA plate. ELISA plates (Nunc Maxisorp) were coated using rPA (1 μg/mL) for 2–5 days at 4 °C. Test samples diluted into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) that contained 5% milk powder (DIFCO Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and 0.05% Tween 20 (PBSMT) were added and incubated for 1 hour at 37 °C. Plates were washed using PBS with 0.5% Tween-20 (PBST), HRP anti-human IgG (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories (KPL); Gaithersburg, MD) added, and incubated for 1 hour at 37 °C, washed using PBST and HDAC inhibitor review developed using ABTS colorigenic substrate (KPL). Data were analyzed using a 4-parameter logistic fit, compared to Emergent’s reference antiserum that was qualified at Battelle Eastern Science and Technology (lot # BEST RS.EBS.001). For ELISpot analysis, PBMC samples were available for 94 subjects. ELISpot subjects were excluded that failed positive control stimulant cut-offs defined as a minimum of 15 CEF I SFC or 200 PHA SFC. Empirical definition of an antigen-specific positive response (for subjects not excluded per above criteria) was set at a minimum of 9 SFC in wells with rPA (or PAp) and at least two-fold higher than background (SFC counts in wells with

medium alone). Scharp analysis [17] calculated the positive responder rates to PAp and rPA, using triplicate SFC counts entered online Scharp analyses are based on distribution-free random sampling (DFR) to increase the strength of the analysis. Those samples having ELISpot data for medium alone (negative control), PAp and rPA were included in the analysis for the Scharp analysis requirement of at least three treatments, aminophylline tested in three or more replicates. The Suissa-Shuster Exact test [18] was performed to compare the response rate due to different dose levels of AVA and AV7909. IP-10 and IL-6

results were analyzed by a General Linear model with post hoc analysis using MANOVA. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient method was used to measure associations between biomarkers. The time course of IP-10 and IL-6 serum levels in AV7909 recipients increased over 24–48 h in a manner consistent with that previously reported [19] with peak serum levels observed at 24 h, as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. Post hoc analysis (by group) for IP-10, revealed that all AV7909 groups were statistically different from AVA and saline (placebo) groups. Post hoc analysis for IL-6 (by group) revealed a trend toward higher IL-6 for AV7909 than AVA that was not statistically different, yet both were statistically different from the saline group (Fig. 2). Like IP-10, IL-6 serum levels returned to pre-immunization levels by day 7.

A total of 43 (adjuvanted) and 37 (non-adjuvanted) subjects compl

A total of 43 (adjuvanted) and 37 (non-adjuvanted) subjects completed the study ( Fig. 1). The mean age of enrolled subjects was 39.5 years with 61% of them being male. All were of Asian ethnicity with a Chinese majority (79%, Table 1). Eighty-nine percent of subjects

experienced at least one AE during the study (Day 0-Day 42). No serious/life threatening AEs were reported. A total of 11 (13.4%) subjects developed at least one severe AE (grade 3). In total there were 535 AEs reported (278 in the adjuvanted and 257 in the non-adjuvanted arm), of which 265 (49.5%) were local (Table 2). The most frequent local symptoms were pain and muscle ache, followed by limitation of movement in their vaccinated arm and Selleck Enzalutamide itch (Fig. 2A). The most common treatment-related non-local symptom was fatigue, followed by myalgia, headache, oropharyngeal pain and rhinorrhea (Fig. 2B). Most AEs (76.4%) were mild; with 15.3% moderate and 8.2% severe. All AEs were resolved by day 42 except three: cataract in one subject; and two symptoms (tiredness and running nose from allergic rhinitis)

in a second subject, considered unrelated to gH1-Qbeta and still on-going at the last visits. No modification was made to the study drug administration because of any AE. The AEs profile was comparable between the adjuvanted and the non-adjuvanted group (Table 2 and Fig. 2). The immunogenicity of the vaccine with and without alhydrogel adjuvant was assessed by HAI titers against A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) at Day 42. The proportion of seroconverted subjects after two doses of vaccine is shown in Table Parvulin 3. In the adjuvanted group, 22/43 (51.2%, 95% CI: 36.8 to 65.4%) and in the non-adjuvanted group 26/37 (70.3%, 95% CI: 54.2 to 82.5%) achieved seroconversion. Hence, only the non-adjuvanted group met the FDA criterion of a ≥40% lower bound CI for seroconversion. An increase in the percentage of subjects with seroconversion

between Day 21 and Day 42 was observed in both groups after boosting. The percentage of subjects with seroconversion was lower in the adjuvanted group than in the non-adjuvanted group on both days. Of the 79 subjects who had baseline HAI titers <40 and HAI titers available on Day 21 and Day 42, 13/43 (30.2%) in the adjuvanted group, and 24/36 (66.7%) in the non-adjuvant group (p = 0.002) showed seroprotection against the strain A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) on Day 21 ( Table 3). The GMT was significantly higher (p = 0.013) in the non-adjuvanted group (GMT = 70.2) than in the adjuvanted group (GMT = 33.2). In addition cross-reactivity of the induced antibodies was evaluated against two drifted influenza strains, A/Brisbane/10/2010 (H1N1) and A/Georgia/01/2013 (H1N1). The immunogenicity against both strains was similar to that demonstrated for A/California/7/2009. The seroconversion rates following two doses of the non-adjuvanted vaccine were 73.0% (95% CI: 57.0 to 84.6%) and 64.9% (95% CI: 48.8 to 78.

1) A combination of both drugs is recently launched in market L

1). A combination of both drugs is recently launched in market. Literature survey

revealed spectrophotometric6 and chromatographic7, 8, 9 and 10 methods for estimation of TDF in pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluids. Few chromatographic11, 12 and 13 methods has been reported for estimations of ETB from biological fluids. TDF and ETB are not official in IP, BP and USP. However, to our knowledge, no information related to the stability-indicating Hydroxychloroquine high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) determination of TDF and ETB in pharmaceutical dosage forms has ever been mentioned in literature. The parent drug stability test guidelines (Q1A) issued by International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) requires that analytical test procedures for stability samples should be fully validated and the assays should be stability-indicating.13, 14, 15 and 16 Selleckchem 5FU The present paper describes a reliable, rapid and accurate stability – indicating HPTLC method for determination of TDF and ETB using HPTLC densitometry. TDF

and ETB were kindly supplied as a gift sample by Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Pune India. All the reagents used were of analytical reagent grade (S.D. Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India) and used without further purification. The samples were spotted in the form of bands of width 6 mm with 100 μL sample syringe on precoated silica gel aluminium plate 60 F254 (20 cm × 10 cm) with 250 μm thickness; (E MERCK, Darmstadt, Germany) using a Camag Linomat V (Switzerland). The plates were prewashed with methanol and activated at 110 °C for 5 min, prior to chromatography. A constant application rate of 150 nl/sec was employed and space between two bands was 15.4 mm. The slit dimension was kept at 6 mm × 0.45 mm. The mobile phase consists of toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: acetic acid (6: 4: 3:0.4, v/v/v). Linear ascending development was carried out in 20 cm × 10 cm twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland). The optimised

chamber saturation time for mobile phase was 20 min, at temperature (25 °C ± 2); 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl the relative humidity (60% ± 5%); the length of chromatogram run was 8 cm and TLC plates were air dried. Densitometric scanning was performed on Camag TLC Scanner 3 equipped with winCATS software version 1.3.0 at 276 nm. The source of radiation utilised was deuterium lamp. Evaluation was performed using peak area with linear regression. Combined standard stock solution containing 1500 μg/ml of TDF and 1000 μg/ml of ETB was prepared in methanol. Calibration was done by Hamilton syringe with the help of automatic sample applicator Linomat V on TLC plate that gave concentration 150–1500 ng/spot of TDF and 100–1000 ng/spot of ETB, respectively. Each concentration was spotted six times on the TLC plates. The plates were developed using previously described mobile phase. The calibration graph was plotted as peak areas versus corresponding concentrations.

The first step in the replication cycle of influenza A virus is v

The first step in the replication cycle of influenza A virus is virus attachment to host cellular receptors [53]. This is mediated by the HA protein, which binds to glycans expressed on the surface of host cells. Avian influenza viruses preferentially bind to glycans harbouring sialic acids with α2,3 linkage to galactose [54] and [55]. These glycans are

abundantly expressed on the surface of avian intestinal and respiratory epithelial cells, contributing to the tissue tropism and route of transmission of these viruses in wild and domestic birds [56] and [57]. It is interesting to note however that they also are expressed in other tissues in birds, such as the heart, kidney, brain and endothelium [56], [57] and [58]. The presence and accessibility of glycans recognized

by avian ABT-888 order influenza viruses at the site of virus entry in humans are essential for successful selleck kinase inhibitor cross-species transmission. The presence of glycans harbouring sialic acids with α2,3 linkage to galactose has been demonstrated on the surface of cells from diverse tissues of mammals, including humans. Sialic acids with α2,3 linkage to galactose were shown to be expressed in the respiratory tract of humans on rare epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa and pharynx, focally on tracheal, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and more abundantly on alveolar epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes), as determined by use of lectin histochemistry [59]. In other mammals, the same method revealed the presence of Parvulin these glycans on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells in the trachea of swine [60] and horses [61], in the bronchi of domestic dogs [62], and in the lungs of a seal and a whale (species unspecified) [63]. Binding studies of avian influenza viruses on tissues of the respiratory tract of mammals further demonstrated the presence of target cells for virus attachment in the lower respiratory tract (mainly bronchiolar cuboidal epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages) of humans, swine, ferrets, and domestic cats

[64], [65] and [66]. In the trachea and bronchi of humans and ferrets, avian influenza viruses were also shown to bind acinar cells of the submucosal glands and mucus [64], in accordance with the detection of sialic acids with α2,3 linkage to galactose on these cell types [67] and in secreted mucins [68]. In extra-respiratory organs, sialic acids with α2,3 linkage to galactose were detected in humans on Kuppfer cells in the liver, on neurons in the brain and in the wall of the intestine, and on endothelial cells of the heart and kidney [59]. In the eye, sialic acids with α2,3 linkage to galactose were present on ocular and lachrymal duct epithelial cells, in accordance with binding of avian influenza viruses to corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells [69] and [70].

sinensis are too rare to obtain and very expensive In addition,

sinensis are too rare to obtain and very expensive. In addition, the content of each component of natural products is variable and it might be difficult to check their quality. Therefore, we chose the cultured fruiting body of C. sinensis produced by Xinhui Xinhan Artificial Cordyceps Factory (Guangdong, China) and supplied by Gunsei Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan)

as our experimental material, and investigated the pharmacological effects of hot water extracts (70 °C for 5 min) of C. sinensis (WECS). We investigated the action of WECS on cancer, particularly on metastasis. As active ingredients of WECS, we focused on cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine) and examined its anticancer and antimetastatic effects and the mechanisms of these effects. It has been reported that cordycepin interacts in biochemical processes, including BIBW2992 purchase nucleic acid synthesis, platelet aggregation, metastasis, inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, and cell cycle signaling (3). In this review, we mainly present our research findings on cordycepin, as an active ingredient of WECS. In in vitro studies, Nakamura et al. investigated the anticancer effect of WECS against B16 mouse melanoma (B16) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, and WECS showed direct cytotoxicity against both B16

and LLC cells at 10 and 30 μg/mL (4). Nakamura R428 et al. indicated that WECS (100 μg/mL) induced the apoptosis of B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells after 48-h exposure in vitro, as determined by both the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling

(TUNEL) method and the detection of a DNA ladder (5). Lee et al. also demonstrated that cordycepin induced apoptosis in human prostate PC-3 cells through a mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent pathway (6). Yoshikawa et al. reported that WECS (10 μg/mL) markedly inhibited the growth of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma (B16-BL6) cells, LLC cells, HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells, and CW-2 human colon carcinoma (CW-2) cells, and the inhibitory effect of WECS was significantly antagonized by 1 μM 3-ethyl 5-benzyl 2-methyl-6-phenyl-4-phenylethynyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate ADP ribosylation factor (MRS1191), a selective adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, WECS included 2.34% w/w cordycepin and 0.12% w/w adenosine as components according to the HPLC-electrochemical detection (ECD) system (7). That is, one of the active ingredients of WECS inhibited the proliferation of four cancer cell lines by the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptors, and this active ingredient may be cordycepin and not adenosine. In in vitro studies, Nakamura et al. demonstrated that cordycepin showed marked inhibitory effects on the growth curves of B16-BL6 cells (IC50 = 39 μM) and LLC cells (IC50 = 48 μM), while adenosine and 2′-deoxyadenosine (up to 100 μM) had no effect on the growth of the two cancer cell lines.