P S B , A G , I V , and D S wrote the paper “
“The output

P.S.B., A.G., I.V., and D.S. wrote the paper. “
“The output of principal neurons is driven by excitatory input from diverse brain regions while being constrained by local inhibition. Activity-dependent forms of plasticity at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), may provide cellular bases

for memory storage Bleomycin purchase within a circuit (Kullmann et al., 2012, Malenka and Bear, 2004 and Mayford et al., 2012). Most studies of LTP and LTD have focused on homosynaptic forms of plasticity at excitatory synapses that represent unsupervised synaptic learning rules where activity in a single synaptic pathway alters its own efficacy. Less is known about how convergent inputs from distinct brain regions generate heterosynaptic forms of plasticity in which activity NVP-BGJ398 datasheet in one pathway alters information flow through a second path. Such supervised learning rules are of great theoretical interest as they provide a rich substrate for circuits to perform a wide range of mnemonic computations (Abbott and Regehr, 2004 and Spruston, 2008). Here we define

how a physiologically relevant, temporally precise pattern of activation of distinct cortical and hippocampal inputs to CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs) implements a heterosynaptic form of plasticity to shape information transfer through the hippocampal macrocircuit by regulating the output of a local inhibitory microcircuit. In the cortico-hippocampal excitatory circuit, inputs carrying information from distinct layers of the entorhinal cortex (EC) converge on CA1 PNs through two main pathways (Kajiwara et al., 2008). CA1 PNs are excited directly by LIII EC neurons Oxygenase through perforant path (PP) synapses on distal CA1 dendrites

in stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) and indirectly by LII EC neurons through the trisynaptic path (EC LII→DG→CA3→CA1), in which CA3 Schaffer collaterals (SC) ultimately form synapses on proximal CA1 dendrites in stratum radiatum (SR) (Amaral and Witter, 1989). This circuit architecture adds a delay line for signals routed through the trisynaptic versus the monosynaptic path (Yeckel and Berger, 1990). Interestingly, although the direct EC inputs only weakly excite CA1 PNs (Jarsky et al., 2005), this sensory information regulates the propagation of signals through the hippocampal trisynaptic loop (Dudman et al., 2007, Golding et al., 2002, Han and Heinemann, 2013, Levy et al., 1998, Remondes and Schuman, 2002, Takahashi and Magee, 2009 and Wöhrl et al., 2007) and is crucial for spatial (Remondes and Schuman, 2004 and Steffenach et al., 2005) and temporal (Suh et al., 2011) memory. One way that the weak PP inputs may influence CA1 output is by providing instructive signals for a powerful form of heterosynaptic plasticity at the SC-CA1 synapses termed input-timing-dependent plasticity (ITDP) (Dudman et al., 2007).

, 1995);

however, as astrocytes are phagocytic cells (al-

, 1995);

however, as astrocytes are phagocytic cells (al-Ali and al-Hussain, 1996), the presence of apoptotic nuclei within astrocytes could be phagocytozed apoptotic neurons. We have observed that majority of prospectively isolated CNS astrocytes (IP-astrocytes) die within 40 hr by apoptosis when cultured without any trophic factors and identified HBEGF and Wnt7a as effective at promoting significant astrocyte survival in vitro. Previous studies have underlined the necessity of EGFR for survival in the cortex; however, the relevant ligand for EGFR has not been identified (Kornblum et al., 1999 and Wagner et al., 2006). Our finding that HBEGF strongly promotes astrocyte survival in vitro, together with Imatinib supplier its high level in vascular cells (Daneman et al., 2010), strongly suggests that HBEGF is an excellent candidate for the ligand mediating astrocyte

survival in vivo. Do developing astrocytes compete for a limiting amount of endogenous trophic factor as do developing neurons and oligodendrocytes, which are matched to a limited number of target cells and axons, respectively (Barres et al., 1992)? Indeed, we have observed astrocytic apoptosis during the peak of astrogenesis in vivo. As we found that HBEGF is highly expressed by developing vascular cells, that vascular cells help promote astrocyte survival, and that the majority of the astrocytes R428 concentration we analyzed contacted blood vessels, we hypothesize that a similar matching may occur between astrocytes and blood vessels. Excess, unneeded astrocytes generated where blood vessels are already ensheathed by other astrocytes may undergo elimination by apoptosis. This hypothesis can be tested in future experiments by assessing whether astrocytes fail to survive in adult mice in which blood vessels are eliminated by exposure to hyperoxia (Ndubuizu et al., 2010). It is generally thought that differentiated astrocytes retain a high ability to proliferate.

This hypothesis is based on the existence of highly proliferative glial CNS tumors and as astrocytes in MD-astrocyte cultures are so highly proliferative. However, we show that prospectively purified postnatal astrocytes cultured in HBEGF, a mitogenic signal, display only a modest ability to proliferate, dividing once every 3 days, while MD-astrocytes divide every 1.4 days. Even after astrocytes had reached their plateau numbers in the CNS by about P14 (Skoff and Knapp no 1991), we found that they still retained this modest ability to divide (data not shown). Thus, most cortical astrocytes are not terminally postmitotic, but have a modest ability to divide (Skoff and Knapp, 1991), in keeping with recent findings on the limited proliferation of reactive astrocytes after brain injury (J. Zamanian, L.C.F., and B.A.B., unpublished data). The function of astrocytes has long been an intriguing mystery. As neurons depend on astrocytes for their survival, it has not been possible to get at their functional roles in vivo simply by deleting them.

, 2009 and Gentet et al , 2010); and (3) the inherent bias in ext

, 2009 and Gentet et al., 2010); and (3) the inherent bias in extracellular recordings which require neurons to fire action potentials before they can be considered in the data set

(cells that do not fire or fire very rarely cannot be detected). Future experiments must directly investigate whether firing rates (and firing correlations) differ depending upon the behavioral conditions, for example running versus stationary (Niell and Stryker, 2010) and/or the complexity of the sensory input and the environment (multiple whiskers contacting textured objects compared to single whisker contacts with simple objects). Under our recording conditions we find a highly skewed distribution of spiking activity in layer 2/3 barrel cortex neurons during active touch, which leads to an interesting unresolved issue of sparse coding regarding the relative importance of the very few neurons that reliably fire many action potentials compared Lenvatinib ic50 to the very many neurons that fire few action potentials. We found that sparse action potential firing during active touch appeared to be enforced by the hyperpolarized reversal potential of the touch response. Indeed, we found close to linear relationships in individual neurons between PSP amplitude

and precontact membrane potential with reversal potentials usually hyperpolarized with respect to action potential threshold. If the precontact Protease Inhibitor Library order membrane potential is spontaneously depolarized above this reversal potential, then the touch response is hyperpolarizing, therefore in fact playing an inhibitory role

by preventing the membrane potential from reaching action potential threshold. Sitaxentan Each neuron has its own cell-specific reversal potential for the touch response. Importantly, we found a strong positive correlation of the touch-evoked firing probability with the reversal potential (Figure 5F). Indeed, the only neuron in our study that fired reliably during active touch was also the only neuron with a touch reversal potential above action potential threshold. The generally hyperpolarized reversal potentials suggest a prominent inhibitory GABAergic contribution to the active touch responses, since the reversal potential for glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials is close to 0 mV and the reversal potential for GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials is generally estimated between −70 and −90 mV. We find that GABAergic neurons are strongly recruited during active touch and they are therefore likely to contribute to driving the hyperpolarized reversal potential of the touch PSP, thus preventing the membrane potential from crossing action potential threshold for most neurons during active touch. Our results are consistent with the simple idea that active touch for a given cell evokes a well-defined mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, which drive the membrane potential toward a specific reversal potential.

While these findings are provocative, further work is required to

While these findings are provocative, further work is required to determine if this propagation of aggregates occurs in vivo or is relevant to TDP-43 protein aggregation, a proteotoxicity emerging as a cardinal feature of sporadic ALS (Mackenzie et al., 2010). While adoption of an alternative structure represents a key step in the pathogenic cascade for polyglutamine disease proteins, considerable work suggests that amyloid-like protein aggregates

in these disorders are BAY 73-4506 purchase not the toxic species, but rather coincident with the production of toxic conformers whose exact nature remains uncertain (Arrasate et al., 2004, Chia et al., 2010, Poirier et al., 2002 and Wacker et al., 2004). Nonetheless, production of protein aggregates always indicates that a process of polyglutamine proteotoxicity is underway;

hence, if dynamic interconversion between toxic conformers and aggregates is ongoing, then cell-to-cell PCI-32765 order transmission of altered polyglutamine species could promote propagation of pathology. In an in vitro investigation, a highly amyloidogenic polyglutamine species was added to the culture media of HEK293 cells stably expressing a nonpathogenic huntingtin protein fragment (Ren et al., 2009). Cellular uptake of the toxic polyglutamine species unexpectedly led to aggregation of the nonpathogenic huntingtin protein, which normally does not form aggregates. Furthermore, the aggregation of huntingtin-Q25 persisted through multiple rounds of cell division, but such aggregation could not be induced with unrelated amyloidogenic proteins, such as yeast Sup35 or Aβ. In an independent study, huntingtin protein aggregation was monitored with a fluorescent signal, and cell-to-cell transmission of huntingtin protein oligomers was documented (Herrera et al., 2011). Further studies will be required to validate the significance and relevance of such cell-to-cell spreading

in disease pathogenesis. If it is true that misfolded proteins can spread from one cell to another, then the obvious question that we must address is how this occurs. One approach to this issue is 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl to recognize that the process can operate in at least two different ways: (1) by extracellular release and uptake or (2) by delivery within membrane-bound structures (Figure 4). In this section, we will briefly review potential pathways by which misfolded proteins could achieve intercellular transit. Misfolded proteins that are aggregate-prone pose a continual challenge to degradative pathways, forcing neurons to heavily rely on autophagy for proteostasis. Hence, misfolded protein conformers are typically directed to membrane-bound structures, in particular autophagosomes that ultimately fuse with endosomes or lysosomes.

Considering the corresponding time courses of inhibition exerted

Considering the corresponding time courses of inhibition exerted on thalamo-cortical neurons, tonic mode may thereby facilitate rapid changes in thalamo-cortical signaling, while burst mode may permit an initially strong evoked response from thalamo-cortical neurons (Hartings et al., 2003).

TRN neurons are critically involved in initiating Neratinib price and sustaining thalamo-cortical oscillations. For example, a deafferented TRN is able to self-generate oscillations in the 7–15 Hz range (spindles; Steriade et al., 1987). Moreover, interactions between TRN and thalamo-cortical neurons sustain oscillations—that is, TRN neurons inhibit thalamo-cortical neurons, which rebound fire to excite TRN neurons, thereby initiating another oscillatory cycle (Steriade et al., 1993). In addition to its prominent role in spindle generation, the TRN has been shown to oscillate PS-341 ic50 at lower (Amzica et al., 1992) and higher frequencies, including the

beta/gamma frequency range (Pinault and Deschênes, 1992). These different oscillation frequencies manifest during different behavioral contexts. Spindles and lower frequencies commonly occur during states of low vigilance, while beta/gamma frequencies are more associated with increased vigilance (Steriade et al., 1993). It appears that spindle oscillations may contribute to reduced efficacy of information transfer across retino-thalamic synapses, by decorrelating retinal input from thalamic output (Le Masson et al., 2002). A more specific role of response modes and oscillatory TRN activity in cognitive and perceptual tasks remains

to be defined. TRN neurons may influence thalamo-cortical neurons of the LGN and pulvinar in a number of ways. First, TRN neurons reduce the spike rate of thalamo-cortical neurons through direct inhibition. For example, the responses of TRN neurons evoked by stimuli at unattended locations were shown to increase, while the responses of LGN neurons decreased (McAlonan et al., 2008), thus suppressing thalamo-cortical transmission of information at unattended locations. Megestrol Acetate In the case of an attended visual stimulus, the converse response pattern was found—that is, responses of LGN neurons increased, while the responses of TRN neurons decreased, thus facilitating the transmission of information at attended locations. Such an inverse correlation has also been reported in anesthetized cats between simultaneously recorded neurons in the LGN and the perigeniculate nucleus, the equivalent of the TRN’s visual sector in the cat (Funke and Eysel, 1998). Second, it is possible that TRN neurons increase the responses of thalamo-cortical neurons through disinhibition. Disinhibition of thalamo-cortical neurons has been shown to arise from TRN neurons inhibiting other TRN cells via dendrodendritic synapses (Pinault et al.

Both phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the MEGA4 progr

Both phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the MEGA4 program (Tamura et al., 2007) applying the neighbor-joining method (Saitou and Nei, 1987). A bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates was used to test the stability of the achieved trees. The nucleotide substitution model of Kimura-2-parameter was used to calculate the genetic distance between each pair of

sequences. In the phylogenetic analysis based on the part of the 18S rRNA (Fig. 2) the trichomonad sequence of the quail was placed within the family of Tritrichomonadidae supported by a bootstrap value of 94. The phylogenetic tree of the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 region (Fig. 3) displayed the unknown trichomonad sequence near the family of Tritrichomonadidae but not Bleomycin mw in the same close relationship as the 18S rRNA gene tree depicted. Taken together, this work presents a necropsy case of a Carfilzomib common quail which showed a severe colonization of the large intestine with trichomonads as an incidental finding at histopathological examination. The invading intestinal parasites were positive with a chromogenic ISH for Trichomonadida but negative in similar assays for known avian trichomonads. Therefore, the presence of a

newly not yet described trichomonad species had to be considered. Subsequent gene sequence analyses of rRNA genes revealed a similarity of 95% with a sequence of T. foetus, a trichomonad found in cattle, pigs and cats. No T. foetus-like sequence has ever been reported from birds. There is only one report of a tritrichomonad

infection (with a species originally named Tritrichomonas gigantica) in a common quail ( Navarathnam, 1970). However, neither an isolate nor sequence data are available from this species. Also, the morphologic variations detected for T. gigantica may lead to the assumption that more than one trichomonad species was included in this original description. There have been no other studies confirming the validity of this species and its existence may be considered doubtful. However it cannot be excluded that the present study and the earlier first report relate to the same organism. Both phylogenetic analyses placed the obtained trichomonad species either within or in close relation to the family of Tritrichomonadidae. This result strongly suggests the detection of an as yet undescribed Tritrichomonas species in the intestine of a common quail. Since no unfixed tissue material is available from this bird a complete species description including morphological analysis and cultivation of the trichomonads was not possible. The large numbers of luminal and invading protozoa associated with a diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa indicate a pathogenic potential of the parasites. Further studies on quail trichomonads are needed to determine whether this case presented only an aberrant infection of a single animal, or if the newly described tritrichomonas are inherent parasites of quails.

For calcium dye loading, Oregon green Bapta-1 AM (OGB) was inject

For calcium dye loading, Oregon green Bapta-1 AM (OGB) was injected into the dLGN of C57/Bl6 mice (Figure 1A). To test for direction selectivity in the dLGN, we presented drifting square-wave gratings of 12 equally

spaced directions at a speed known to stimulate DSRGCs (Weng et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2008, 2010; Huberman et al., 2009; Yonehara et al., 2009) (i.e., 25 deg/s, 0.01 cycle per degree). Five repeats of each stimulus and a blank gray stimulus were presented in random order to the animal while visually evoked calcium responses were recorded in up to dozens of neurons simultaneously at a known depth in the dLGN, reflecting the underlying changes in firing rate of each neuron (Figures 1C–1E and 2). This method allows even rare neuron subtypes JQ1 chemical structure to be detected, and each neuron’s precise location to be mapped selleck chemical anatomically

within the dLGN. Many neurons responded robustly and reliably to at least one direction of the drifting grating, characterized by a time-locked increase in fluorescence to the period of the drifting grating (n = 353, ΔF/F amplitude at F1 or F2 > 2.5% and circular T2 test p < 0.05; see Figure S1 available online). We used the modulation of the fluorescence signal at the temporal frequency of the grating (0.25 Hz, F1) or at twice the temporal frequency of the grating (0.5 Hz, F2) as the measure of neuronal responsiveness. The F1 modulation corresponds to either the onset (On) or offset (Off) of each bar of light passing through a cell's receptive field, while the F2 modulation corresponds to both the onset and offset (On-Off) of each bar of light. Importantly, since the OGB signal attenuates higher frequencies, a large, detected F2 modulation represents an even stronger than recorded modulation, increasing confidence in On-Off designations. Likewise, an apparently low F2 modulation leaves characterization

of On-Off ambiguous or not possible. We computed the direction-selectivity index (DSI) and axis-selectivity index (ASI) of each responsive neuron in our sample. Neurons Parvulin with high DSI values (DSI > 0.5) responded preferentially to a single direction of the grating. Neurons with high ASI values (ASI > 0.5) responded preferentially to gratings drifting along a single axis of motion, responding selectively to gratings drifting in either opposing direction along a motion axis at a single orientation. The majority of neurons were not selective for motion in a particular direction or along a particular axis (n = 320/353, Figure 2B, DSI < 0.5 and ASI < 0.5). These responses are consistent with the circular direction tuning curves typical of dLGN neurons (Hubel and Wiesel, 1961). These findings demonstrate that the superficial dLGN is far from a purely DS layer. Conversely, 18 of the visually responsive cells in the data set were strongly and consistently direction selective (example cells Figures 2C, 2D, and 3A, DSI > 0.5, Hotelling T2 test, p < 0.05).

Other criteria are access to the motion evidence and access to th

Other criteria are access to the motion evidence and access to the oculomotor system

(since the animal reports direction with a saccade to a target), but the responses should outlast the immediate responses of visual cortical neurons and they cannot precipitate an DAPT mw eye movement. The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) seemed an obvious candidate (Shadlen and Newsome, 1996 and Glimcher, 2001). LIP was defined as the part of Brodmann area 7 that projects to brain structures involved in the control of eye movements (Andersen et al., 1990). It receives input from the appropriate visual areas and the pulvinar, and its neurons are known to respond persistently through intervals of up to seconds when an animal is instructed—but required to withhold—a saccade to a target (Barash et al., 1991 and Gnadt and Andersen, 1988). It seems obvious that one could construct a task like a delayed eye movement and to substitute

a decision about motion for BVD-523 cell line the instruction. Under this condition, LIP neurons ought to, at the very least, signal the monkey’s answer in the delay period after the decision is made. In other words, the neurons should signal the planned saccade to (or away from) the choice target in its receptive field (RF). That was immediately confirmed—no surprise, as it was almost guaranteed by targeting LIP. Far Metalloexopeptidase more interesting, however, were the dynamical changes in the neural firing during

the period of random dot viewing. The evolution of this activity occurs in just the right time frame for decision formation (Figure 3). Indeed, the average firing rate in LIP approximates the integration (i.e., accumulation) of the difference between the averaged firing rates of pools of neurons in MT whose RFs overlap the random dot motion stimulus. It is known that the firing rate of MT neurons is approximated by a constant plus a value that is proportional to motion strength in the preferred direction (Britten et al., 1993). For motion in the opposite direction, the response is approximated by a constant minus a value proportional to motion strength. The difference is simply proportional to motion strength. Interestingly, in LIP, the initial rate of rise in the average firing rate is proportional to motion strength (Figure 3C, inset), suggesting that the linking computation is integration with respect to time (Roitman and Shadlen, 2002 and Shadlen and Newsome, 1996). This integration step is supported directly by inserting brief motion “pulses” in the display and demonstrating their lasting effect on the LIP response, choice, and RT (Huk and Shadlen, 2005). Moreover, the signal that is integrated is noisy, giving rise to a neural correlate of both drift and diffusion.

In order to isolate NMDA EPSCs, 3 μM NBQX was added and Vh = −40 

In order to isolate NMDA EPSCs, 3 μM NBQX was added and Vh = −40 mV; in some cases, D-AP5 (50 μM) was added to confirm that synaptic responses were NMDAR mediated. When measuring RI, 100 μM spermine was added to the intracellular solution in order to prevent dilution of cytoplasmic polyamines and 50–100 μM AP5 was added to the bath solution. RI was calculated as the ratio of the slope

0–40 mV and −70 to 0 mV; the average EPSC (−70 mV) was averaged with the one following the depolarization period. Two stimulating electrodes were placed in the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway and stimulated at 0.05–0.1 Hz to record AMPAR EPSCs and at 0.03 Hz for NMDAR EPSCs. When investigating mGluR-LTD, L-689,560 (5 μM) was added Alectinib mouse to the bath solution and (S)-3,5-DHPG (100 μM) http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html was bath applied for 5 min. Data were acquired and analyzed with WinLTP

(Anderson and Collingridge, 2007). Average amplitudes of EPSCs over a period of 5 min immediately before and 25 min after LTD were considered to determine the magnitude of LTD. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t test or one-way ANOVA as appropriate, and significance was set at p < 0.05. See Supplemental Experimental Procedures for further details. We thank P. Rubin and P. Tidball for technical assistance, R. Kahn for Arf1 plasmids, and T. Bouschet for Arf6 plasmids. This work was funded by BBSRC, MRC, The Wellcome Trust, and the WCU Program (Korea). D.L.R. designed the research and performed all biochemistry experiments and some imaging experiments; M.A. designed the research and performed all electrophysiology experiments; A.A. performed Megestrol Acetate live imaging experiments; E.B.S., N.H., J.M., and N.J. performed imaging experiments; K.M. performed molecular biology; J.R.M. advised electrophysiology experiments; G.L.C. designed research and supervised electrophysiology experiments; J.G.H. designed the research, supervised the biochemistry and imaging experiments, performed imaging experiments, supervised the project, and wrote the paper. “
“The molecular architecture of synapses determines the synaptic strength

at a given steady state. Modular scaffold proteins are decisive factors for the internal organization of synapses. They provide binding sites for the transient immobilization of neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic membrane, thus setting the gain on synaptic transmission. In addition, synaptic scaffold proteins bind to cytoskeletal elements and regulate downstream signaling events in the postsynaptic density (PSD). In view of this, it is essential to know the actual numbers of scaffold proteins to assess their roles for the ultrastructure, function, and plasticity of synapses in quantitative terms. Here, we have developed nanoscopic techniques based on single-molecule imaging that enable us to gain quantitative insights into the molecular organization of inhibitory synapses in spinal cord neurons.

“Side-branch occlusion (SBO) of coronary arteries arising

“Side-branch occlusion (SBO) of coronary arteries arising from an atherosclerotic coronary Libraries segment may happen during percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) [1], [2] and [3]. Accidental occlusion of atrial coronary branches could also occur after PTCA (see Fig. 1), but the incidence of this complication is unknown. Atrial arteries arise from the right and circumflex coronary arteries and extend through the atrial myocardium to supply Selleck Antidiabetic Compound Library both chambers. It is therefore conceivable that PTCA of lesions located at the right or circumflex coronary arteries could lead to an accidental atrial branch occlusion (ABO). However, the incidence and risk factors related to this complication have

not been systematically analyzed and only one study reports the incidence of occlusion of sinus node artery in patients undergoing right coronary angioplasty [4]. The clinical relevance of ABO is not well established. There is indirect evidence from clinical and necropsic studies [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11] to support the hypothesis that,

like it occurs during ventricular myocardial ischemia [12], [13] and [14], ZD6474 datasheet atrial myocardial ischemia secondary to ABO might lead to mechanical atrial dysfunction, increased electrical vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias, and late structural remodeling. The aim of our study was to analyze the incidence of accidental ABO during elective PTCA of the right and circumflex coronary arteries in an experienced coronary interventional center. Moreover, we compare the clinical profile and technical

procedural characteristics in patients with and without accidental ABO after elective PTCA. From a total number of 2149 PTCAs performed between January 1, 2009 and February 28, 2011 in our institution, we retrospectively reviewed the 845 consecutive elective procedures involving the right and circumflex coronary arteries. Therefore, we finally include the 200 patients in whom the placement of the stent could interfere the atrial branch flow. This could happen when a) the treatment of target lesion forces to place the stent across the origin of atrial artery, or about b) the distance between the extreme of the stent and the origin of atrial branch is less than or equal to 5 mm assessed by Quantitative Coronary Assessment (QCA) software (Philips Allura Xper FD 10). In order to facilitate the use of our data in future prospective studies addressed to determine the clinical consequences of isolated atrial ischemia, patients submitted to PTCA in the setting of acute myocardial infarction were not included. All patients were admitted to the hospital at least 1 day before the intervention. In all cases the clinical history, physical examination, 12-lead ECG, routine blood test, and myocardial markers were collected retrospectively whenever available.