However, it should be noted that, when the data were analysed in

However, it should be noted that, when the data were analysed in a manner consistent with the current criteria for the diagnosis of microalbuminuria, the relationships were persistent and perhaps stronger. Additionally, it should be noted, in the application of these findings to clinical practice, that proteinuria can also originate from a pathology that affects tubular resorption of the normal filtered check details amount of protein. While microalbuminuria may similarly reflect a tubular process, it is used clinically to reflect early glomerular disease. Another limitation of this study is that it is based on a population of convenience rather than the

entire clinic population. While this should not affect the estimate of the predictive ability of microalbuminuria, it probably affects the estimates of the prevalences

of microalbuminuria and proteinuria. Therefore, it is recommended that prevalence estimates be interpreted cautiously. Finally, this cohort study could not examine the link between microalbuminuria and proteinuria and clinical outcomes such as mortality. While the link between proteinuria and mortality has been demonstrated in prior studies [6,7], it has not been examined among persons with microalbuminuria. The inability to use these data to examine this association is related to the number of individuals who changed their care provider during the course of their follow-up and subsequently did not present for additional clinical care after the visit at which they provided Romidepsin price their baseline sample. The lack of follow-up information on approximately one-quarter of the initial cohort did not allow the examination of the link between albuminuria and mortality. This PAK6 will need to be examined in additional studies. Subjects who did not present for additional clinical care differed from those who did in terms of demographics such as age and gender. Given that the association between microalbuminuria

and progression to proteinuria did not appear to be confounded by either of these variables, the impact of this loss to follow-up must be considered but may not affect the conclusions substantively. In summary, microalbuminuria is common in HIV-infected persons and appears to be associated with immunological parameters such as CD4 lymphocyte count. While patients with microalbuminuria on initial evaluation may not continue to have similar findings on subsequent examinations (i.e. revert to normal levels of albumin excretion), there appears to be a subgroup of persons, partially identified by slightly older age and decreased GFR, who have persistent urinary protein excretion abnormalities. Finally, microalbuminuria is predictive of the development of proteinuria. These findings may suggest a utility to the periodic screening of persons with HIV infection for the presence of microalbuminuria.

, 1994; Canton et al, 2001; Van Damme et al, 2003; Tortarolo et

, 1994; Canton et al., 2001; Van Damme et al., 2003; Tortarolo et al., 2006).

In addition, intrathecal or intraspinal administration of AMPA receptor agonists induced motor neuron degeneration (Hugon et al., 1989; Ikonomidou et al., 1996; Corona & Tapia, 2007), and inhibition of glutamate uptake resulted in motor neuron PF-01367338 order death in organotypic spinal cord cultures by overstimulation of AMPA receptors (Rothstein et al., 1993; Saroff et al., 2000). Motor neurons appear to be very sensitive to excitotoxicity for several reasons (Fig. 4). They combine the presence of a high number of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (Carriedo et al., 1996; Van Den Bosch et al., 2000) with a low calcium-buffering capacity due to the low expression level of calcium-binding proteins (Alexianu et al., 1994). An immediate consequence of the lower amount of calcium-buffering proteins is that their mitochondria play a prominent role in calcium metabolism (Grosskreutz et al., 2010). AMPA receptors are tetramers composed of a variable association of four subunits (GluR1–4) and the calcium permeability of the receptor is determined

by the GluR2 subunit. Receptors with GluR2 have a very low calcium permeability compared to GluR2-lacking receptors. The calcium impermeability of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors is explained by the presence of a positively charged arginine instead of the genetically encoded neutral glutamine. This arginine residue at the Q/R site is introduced by the editing of GluR2 pre-mRNA, a process that is virtually complete under normal conditions. Montelukast Sodium Motor neurons express low levels of the GluR2 subunit, leading to a higher calcium permeability of the AMPA receptor and an increased sensitivity to

excitotoxicity (Greig et al., 2000; Heath et al., 2002; Van Damme et al., 2002; Kawahara et al., 2003). The role of GluR2 in motor neuron degeneration appears quite important. Editing of the GluR2 mRNA has been reported to be disturbed in sporadic ALS patients (Kawahara et al., 2004), suggesting an increased calcium permeability of their AMPA receptors and thus increased vulnerability to excitotoxicity. Overexpression of an ‘uneditable’ GluR2 subunit resulted in late-onset motor neuron degeneration in the mouse (Feldmeyer et al., 1999). Deleting the GluR2-encoding gene in mutant SOD1 mice accelerated motor neuron degeneration (Van Damme et al., 2005), while providing motor neurons with extra GluR2 increased significantly the life span of the mutant SOD1 mouse model (Tateno et al., 2004). Astrocytes from the ventral spinal cord determine the expression level of the GluR2 subunit in motor neurons and thus protect the motor neuron from excitotoxicity (Van Damme et al., 2007). The presence of mutant SOD1 in astrocytes abolished this protective effect, which may contribute to the non-cell autonomous nature of mutant SOD1-induced motor neuron degeneration.

014–1107; P = 0009), and care at Kayunga vs Kangulamira (OR 0

014–1.107; P = 0.009), and care at Kayunga vs. Kangulamira (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.23–0.92; P = 0.035). In a multivariate linear regression model of covariates associated with CD4 count recovery, time on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P < 0.0001), patient satisfaction with care (P = 0.038), improvements in total lymphocyte count (P < 0.0001) and haemoglobin concentration (P = 0.05) were positively associated, whereas age at start of ART (P = 0.0045) was negatively associated with this outcome. High virological suppression rates are achievable on first-line

ART in Uganda. The odds of virological suppression were positively associated with efavirenz use and improvements in CD4 cell percentage and total lymphocyte count and negatively associated with the cost of travel to the clinic. CD4 cell reconstitution Selleckchem BIBW2992 was positively associated with CD4 count at study visit, time on ART, satisfaction with care at clinic, haemoglobin concentration and total lymphocyte count and negatively associated with age. “
“HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected

children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response. In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected

and healthy children. Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36–72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more selleck inhibitor rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children. Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization.

(2004) Microphotographs of the outer surface of white sweetclove

(2004). Microphotographs of the outer surface of white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) roots show that both DsRed-labeled strain Rm1021 and the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled

strain GMI6032 of S. meliloti attached to the root surface, forming aggregates and infection threads that contained only DsRed-labeled cells (Fig. 2a). Infection threads and small aggregates that contained either GFP- or DsRed-expressing rhizobia were observed (Fig. 2b). Where the two strains overlap, fluorescence is yellow. In infection threads containing both, GFP- and DsRed-expressing rhizobia were not randomly intermixed (Fig. 2c). Surface components are involved in the early stages of nodulation elicited by rhizobia, and are critical for biofilm formation. The change from a planktonic to a biofilm lifestyle in S. meliloti is mediated by numerous environmental signals selleck compound (Rinaudi et al., 2006). Biofilms are the most common life strategy for bacteria in natural environments, including the rhizosphere, as typified by S. meliloti. Mycelial colonization and biofilm formation by bradyrhizobia with common soil fungi have been reported (Seneviratne & Jayasinghearachchi, 2003). Such biofilms showed nitrogenase activity (Jayasinghearachchi & Sereviratne, 2004a, b; Sereviratne & Jayasinghearachchi, 2005) and enhanced availability of nitrogen and phosphate when inoculated

to soil (Sereviratne & Jayasinghearachchi, 2005). Heavy mycelial colonization by Bradyrhizobium elkanii SEMIA 5019 was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus-bradyrhizobial biofilms 16 days postincubation (Jayasinghearachchi Apoptosis inhibitor & Sereviratne, 2004a). Nitrogenase activity was detected in the biofilm, but not in the fungus or Bradyrhizobium PD184352 (CI-1040) alone. This study proved that symbiotic bacteria within biofilms can

fix nitrogen, and that the fungi are not responsible for nitrogenase activity, as was claimed previously. Similar findings were reported in a B. elkanii SEMIA 5019/Penicillium spp. system. Shoot, root, and nodule weights of soybean plants treated with a biofilm inoculum were significantly higher than those of control plants under greenhouse conditions (Jayasinghearachchi & Sereviratne, 2004b). Biofilm-inoculated plants also showed significantly higher shoot and root nitrogen accumulation. Therefore, use of nitrogen-fixing biofilms as inoculants may promote soil nitrogen fertility and plant growth. Mycelial growth in the rhizosphere may facilitate the movement of rhizobia, which normally show reduced vertical mobility (McDermott & Graham, 1989), because plants inoculated with a bradyrhizobial-fungal biofilm displayed better nodule distribution than conventionally inoculated plants (Jayasinghearachchi & Sereviratne, 2004b). Application of the B. elkanii SEMIA 5019–Penicillium spp. mix enhanced phosphate mineralization, in addition to increasing nitrogen availability in soil.

“Objectives  To explore how the use of digital media could

“Objectives  To explore how the use of digital media could affect how people view professional behaviour. Key findings  The growth in social networking sites has been phenomenal and they are now an extremely popular medium for interacting with others both commercially and privately. This as-yet-uncontrolled digital media provides ample opportunities for public and professional scrutiny for the unwary. Instances of employer screening and employee dismissal are already documented. All pharmacists who use digital media now need to be conscious that their virtual presence could be subject to regulator

investigation. Conclusions  It is important that individuals are aware of the risks associated with using digital media and that pharmacy organisations begin to provide clear leadership to help pharmacists know what is and is not acceptable. “
“Communication is a key issue in the delivery of healthcare selleck kinase inhibitor services. In the pharmacy context, pharmacist–patient communication may vary from brief counselling episodes to extensive pharmaceutical care consultations. Many community pharmacies have

developed practices to facilitate the effective delivery of pharmacy care, in particular to chronic patients, although the nature and extent of the services differ widely from country to country. Diabetes-focused pharmaceutical care is an example highlighting both the opportunities and challenges associated with an expansion of pharmacy services either from product dispensing to pharmaceutical consultations. An area of particular challenge of such an expansion of pharmaceutical services

see more is the development of expertise in the delivery of patient-centred pharmaceutical consultations. Although well known to medicine and nursing, patient-centredness has not been routinely incorporated into the training of pharmacists, evaluation of pharmacy practice or conduct of pharmacy-related research. There are few studies of the communication process based on analysis of an objective record such as an audio or video recording and the common perspective is largely a one-way information flow from pharmacist to patient. This has hampered the field’s ability to link pharmacy communication to outcomes, including patient adherence and satisfaction with services. An extensive body of communication research on physician–patient interaction, employing the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS), exists and the system presents a potentially useful tool in the pharmacy context. The purpose of this essay is to explore the utility of the RIAS for analysis of pharmacist–patient interaction and its implication for improving patient care and optimizing pharmacy-specific outcomes. “
“Objectives The practice environment in Alberta has emerged as the most unique in North America, including access to laboratory values, a province-wide electronic health record and legislation to support additional prescribing authority for qualified pharmacists.

36 h when co-culturing Aspergillus strains with L60 and between 2

36 h when co-culturing Aspergillus strains with L60 and between 20.63 and 22.31 h see more in presence of L23. The lag phase prior to growth of all fungal strains was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by L. rhamnosus L60 compared with L. fermentum L23. In all Aspergillus section Flavi strains assayed, growth rate decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when coculturing with L60 and L23. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate from 77% to 96%, while L. fermentum L23 significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate from 36% to 50%, with respect to control (Fig. 2). The highest reduction

of growth rate was observed with both bacterial strains on A. flavus RC2054. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 was most effective in reducing the growth rate on all Aspergillus section Flavi strains assayed when compared with L. fermentum L23. The effect of L60 and L23 on inhibition of AFB1 production is shown in Fig. 3. In general, AFB1 production exhibited a similar pattern to growth rate, when the fungal

strains were cocultured with L60 and L23. The presence of L60 and L23 did not stimulate the production of AFB1 in any of the Aspergillus section Flavi strains assayed. Lactobacillus fermentum L23 was able to inhibit AFB1 production of A. flavus RC2053 and A. flavus RC2055. Aspergillus section Flavi strains showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in AFB1 production when grown in the presence of L60 and L23, with decreased production of the toxin between 96% and 99% and 73% and 99%, respectively. Toxin production of Aspergillus section Flavi was significantly reduced Erastin (P < 0.05) by both lactobacilli strains assayed compared with control. The Lactobacillus strains used were previously characterized by Pascual et al. (2008a ,b and Ruiz et al. (2009) as presenting probiotic properties: colonization, self-aggregation, adherence to epithelial cells

and coaggregation with bacterial pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 and L. fermentum L23 are producers of secondary active metabolites, such as organic acids, bacteriocins and, in the case of L. rhamnosus L60, hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin production was PR-171 ic50 previously characterized and the substance was purified (Pascual et al., 2008a ,b). The two strains showed a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some being human and animal pathogens. The present study shows the potential of L. rhamnosus L60 and L. fermentum L23 in control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and AFB1 production in vitro. Biopreservation, the use of microorganisms to preserve food and feed stuffs, has been gaining increasing interest due to consumers’ demand for reduced use of chemical preservatives (Prema et al., 2010). As LAB are ‘generally recognized as safe’ organisms (Hoque et al., 2010), they could have useful application in the prevention of fungal contamination in raw materials, food and feed, and in reducing the health hazards associated with mycotoxins.

4 kb);

4 kb); I-BET-762 chemical structure EF650850 (MTT1-BS07 2.4 kb); EF650851 (MTT1-BS07 2.7 kb); EF650852 (MTT1-A15 2.4 kb) and EF650853 (MTT1-WS 2.7 kb). Previously deposited sequences

are available under accession numbers DQ010168–DQ010174. Sequences were aligned using clustalw (Thompson et al., 1994). prosite was used to find motifs and membrane-spanning domains in the purported proteins ( Binding sites in the promoters were analysed using siteseer (Boardman et al., 2003). We have reported previously that antimycin A strongly inhibits the growth of lager strain A15 on a solid medium with maltotriose, but has less effect on the growth of lager strain WS34/70 (Dietvorst et al., 2005). As shown in Fig. 1, lager strain BS07 was also inhibited in its growth on maltotriose

in the presence of antimycin A, but to a smaller extent than lager strain A15. A fourth lager yeast strain, BS01, shows a similar growth profile as strain WS34/70. For growth on maltose as a carbon source, the effect of antimycin A was less and about the same for all four strains (Fig. 1). To investigate the presence of MTT1-like and/or selleck kinase inhibitor MAL31-like genes in the lager yeast strains A15, WS34/70, BS01 and BS07, PCRs were performed using specific primer combinations MAL31-fw – MAL31-rv and Mty1-fw – Mty1-rv, respectively (Table 1 and Fig. 2). These primers discriminate between MTT1- and MAL31-like genes. Using these primers, we showed that all four lager strains contain both MAL31 and MTT1 genes (data not shown). To isolate MAL31 Cell press and MTT1 genes from the four lager yeast strains, independent PCRs were performed using the universal primers ‘MAL31Xba’and ‘MAL31BamH’. This PCR amplifies the sequences between 542 or 836 bp upstream and 26 bp downstream of the open reading frame (ORFs) and yielded both 2.4- and 2.7-kb products as reported previously for strains A15 and

WS34/70 (Dietvorst et al., 2005). The PCR products were inserted into the pCR-TOPO vector and independent clones were isolated and characterized by PCR with the MTT1-specific pimers Mty1-fw and Mty1-rv and the MAL31-specific primers Mal31-fw and Mal31-rv (Table 1 and Fig. 2). From strains WS34/70 and BS07, both 2.4- and 2.7-kb versions of the MAL31 and MTT1 genes were isolated, whereas the 2.7-kb version of MTT1 was not found in strains A15 and BS01 (Table 2). To further study the role of these genes in maltotriose metabolism, the various MAL31 and MTT1 genes were recloned into the multicopy vector pRUL409(KanMX). A15 transformants containing these constructs were tested for their ability to start growing rapidly on maltotriose in the presence of antimycin A. For each strain, at least two independent isolates of both the 2.4- and the 2.7-kb versions of both the MAL31 and the MTT1 genes were tested in this manner, except for the 2.7-kb MTT1 versions from strains BS01 and A15, which were not found. Transformants carrying the 2.

As HIV infections spread globally, local epidemics in different g

As HIV infections spread globally, local epidemics in different geographical areas and risk groups

emerged, which were dominated by a single subtype or CRF [1, 2]. As more viral mixing has occurred a plethora of untypable and unique recombinants have emerged, confusing the picture further [3]. There are a number of techniques for identifying subtype but the gold standard is viral genome sequencing. In clinical practice, the subtype is usually supplied as a by-product of a genotypic test for resistance. However, this should be interpreted with caution because the pol. gene only reflects the genetic composition of a small region of the viral genome. Furthermore, different algorithms using the same sequence data can produce discrepant selleck kinase inhibitor results. At present the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool [4] is generally regarded as the Omipalisib supplier gold standard for web-based systems. Unless superinfection occurs, the viral subtype will not change during the course of disease. Epidemiologically, there is interest in viral subtypes as they provide information on the dynamics of the

epidemic at national and international levels. Currently, subtype does not provide much guidance for individual patient management. There are, however, a number of issues surrounding subtype that have attracted significant attention Thiamet G [1, 2]. There is limited evidence that some subtypes cause more aggressive disease than others, with faster disease progression [5-8]. Anecdotal evidence of greater transmissibility of some subtypes has not been substantiated [9]. Subtype-related sequence variability can affect the performance of viral load and genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance and tropism assays. Antiretroviral drugs were designed for, tested on and predominantly used on infections with subtype B, which has been historically the

dominant virus in the USA and Europe. There was concern that some subtypes may be inherently less responsive to certain therapies [10, 11]. However, there is now clear evidence that the excellent virological and immunological outcomes achieved with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not differ among the predominant subtypes [12]. Although certain resistance mutations are more common in some subtypes than others, major mutations conferring resistance in subtype B also confer resistance in prevalent non-B subtypes and vice versa [13]. Subtle effects cannot be excluded, however, and rarer subtypes may show novel patterns. HIV gains entry into cells that express CD4 and one of two main transmembrane co-receptors, either CCR5 or CXCR4. The preferential use of one of the co-receptors is determined by the V3-loop of the envelope protein gp120.

The Gly115Arg mutation present in strains of D was not predicted

The Gly115Arg mutation present in strains of D was not predicted to result in enzyme inactivation based on sequence analysis alone, making it unclear whether AaxB sequence variations seen in other Chlamydia alter AaxB activity. To further our understanding of this enzyme and determine whether the inactivation selleck chemicals of AaxB is restricted to the human-specific C. trachomatis serovars, we completed an activity panel using variant Chlamydia AaxB proteins in a surrogate E. coli acid shock assay. A pan-chlamydial

anti-AaxB antibody was used to detect enzyme production and processing during the developmental cycle using a cell culture infection model. Collectively, our data indicate that non-C. trachomatis species (and a single C. trachomatis serovar: E) produce active AaxB. Chlamydia strains used in this study include Chlamydia muridarum strain Nigg, C. trachomatis serovar D strain UW-3/CX, Chlamydia psittaci GSK-3 inhibitor review strain 6BC, Chlamydia caviae strain SP6 (Binet et al., 2010), and C. trachomatis serovar E strain UW-5/CX. Chlamydia pecorum strain E58 DNA was provided by Patrik

Bavoil (University of Maryland). The previously unreported aaxB sequences for C. caviae SP6 and C. trachomatis E strain UW-5/CX were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers JX287368 and JX287367, respectively. Escherichia coli strain MG1655 was used for the acid resistance complementation assays, while E. coli Rosetta-gami2 (DE3; Novagen) was used for AaxB expression and purification. A pBAD/HisA vector (modified during cloning to remove the histidine tag coding region; Invitrogen) carrying aaxB from C. pneumoniae strain Kajaani 6 or adiA from E. coli strain MG1655 was provided by David Graham (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). Primers used to

amplify the different aaxB variants are listed in Supporting information, Table S1. PCR-amplified products were digested and ligated into the NcoI and HindIII sites on the pBAD/HisA vector (without the histidine tag). Constructs were then electroporated into ΔadiA E. coli strain MG1655. The aaxB gene from C. caviae also was PCR-amplified (primers listed in Table S1) for cloning Staurosporine manufacturer into a pET-19b expression vector (Invitrogen). PCR-amplified products were digested and ligated into the NdeI and BamHI sites on pET-19b and then electroporated into E. coli strain Rosetta-gami2 (DE3). All constructs were sequence verified at the Biomedical Instrumentation Center at the Uniformed Services University. The adiA gene was deleted from E. coli strain MG1655 using the lambda red method of linear recombination with the primers listed in Table S1 (Datsenko & Wanner, 2000). After PCR verification of the constructed ΔadiA::kan mutation, the allele was moved into a clean E. coli MG1655 background via P1L4 transduction (Miller, 1972).

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine and freshwater

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine and freshwater environments is constrained by the ability of microorganisms to access the hydrophobic surfaces of oil droplets. A key process for attachment to oil droplets involves the production of surface active agents (Horowitz et al., 1975), which is further accompanied by changes in the properties of the cell envelope. One of the most notable features is the formation of canals in the cell wall, which appears to enable the

transport of nanometer-sized droplets into the surface of the interior cell membrane (Southam et al., 2001). The first step involving the secretion of surface active agents includes the production of relatively low-molecular-weight

surfactants that decrease the surface tension and excretion of Doramapimod high-molecular-weight polysaccharide polymers that serve to emulsify the oil and water into small particles that provide increased surface area for enzymatic attack. In several studies, these exopolymers appear along with fibrils and wall appendages (Marin et al., 1996; Macedo et al., 2005), and can include embedded flagella that are used for both motility and attachment of the cells to the oil surface (Marin et al., 1996). Another microscopic study further reports the appearance of cellular aggregates that form over the surface ICG-001 price of oil droplets and invade the oil as the biofilm matures (Macedo et al., 2005). Altogether, these studies provide the basis for comparisons of different model systems. On the other hand, there have been Florfenicol few comparative studies examining different microorganism and substrate conditions using the same methods. Moreover, the three-dimensional (3D)

structures of the microhabitats that are generated by exocellular polymers have not yet been described using 3D reconstructions of serial sections cut through oil droplets that are colonized by microorganisms. With the current interest in the remediation of oil-polluted marine and freshwater environments, a better description of the feeding structures is highly relevant for understanding how biophysical processes and cell wall adaptations influence the rate of oil degradation. The research described here used a combination of cytochemical stains and microscopy techniques to describe the specific exocellular fibrils, films and internal granules that are generated by yeasts and bacteria during oil droplet colonization. A novel aspect of the present research was the use of serial sections and computer imaging to generate a 3D reconstruction of the habitat that is formed by selected yeast and bacteria on the oil droplet surfaces. These trophic structures appear as pits and cavities that enclose microbial cells along with the polymers and enzymes that are produced by the oil-degrading microorganisms.