Materials and Methods: In-house seasonal and pandemic influenza-specific
polymerase chain reaction assays were introduced and/or developed at the Molecular Diagnosis Centre (MDC) at the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. These assays have been used to test all samples received from in-patients, out-patients, staff and visitors for suspected pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 infection. Results: Prior to the arrival of the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus in Singapore at the end of May 2009, seasonal influenza A/H3N2 predominated in this population, with very little seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses detected. Within about 1 month of its arrival in Singapore (mainly during June to July 2009), this MDV3100 manufacturer pandemic virus rapidly displaced seasonal influenza A/H3N2 to become the predominant strain in the Singaporean population served by MDC/NUH. Conclusions: Real-time molecular techniques have allowed the prompt
detection of different influenza subtypes during this current pandemic, which has revealed the displacement/replacement of previously circulating seasonal subtypes with A/H1N1/2009. Although some of this may be explained by immunological cross-reactivity between influenza subtypes, more studies are required. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010;39:291-4″
“Chordoma is a neoplasm of notochordal differentiation that typically occurs in the axial skeleton. Accurate diagnosis is therapeutically Nutlin-3 order important but can be challenging, especially in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Immunohistochemistry for the transcription factor brachyury (T) has recently proven diagnostically useful in whole-tissue sections. LB-100 ic50 Our aim was to compare brachyury performance with conventional markers (S-100, EMA, keratin) and to evaluate its utility in distinguishing chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics. Brachyury
immunohistochemistry was performed on chordoma (8 FNA, 12 CNB), chondrosarcoma (10 FNA), and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (12 FNA). Immunohistochemistry performed at the time of diagnosis was also reviewed. Brachyury was positive in 17 (85%) cases of chordoma and typically showed moderate-to-strong nuclear staining. Of five sets of concurrent FNA and CNB, four pairs were positive for brachyury in both samples and one pair was positive for brachyury in the CNB and negative in the cell block. S-100, EMA, and keratin stains were available for 13 chordomas: 9 (69%) cases (including the 3 negative for brachyury) were positive for S-100 and keratin or EMA; 4 cases were keratin positive but S-100 negative. No nuclear brachyury staining was seen in chondrosarcoma or adenocarcinoma, though two adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic staining. Brachyury separates chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics with high sensitivity and specificity in small biopsies. As a single test, brachyury has higher sensitivity than a combined panel of S-100 and epithelial markers.
“Background: Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) demands a significant time
commitment on the part of the patient, especially during the escalation period when weekly visits are required. Many patients refuse or discontinue treatment in spite of the demonstrated clinical efficacy of SCIT. Understanding the factors that affect the length of the escalation phase would allow for counseling of patients, which may improve patient compliance. The aims of this study were to determine the mean time required to reach maintenance dose during conventional protocol SCIT and toidentify factors that significantly affect the time required to reach maintenance dose.\n\nMethods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 55 patients (total Selleck Cilengitide of 79 treatment vials) who began SCIT between January 2007 and December 2010 and reached maintenance dose. The effect of demographic data, medical and social history, and SCIT allergen data on the time required to reach maintenance dose were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses.\n\nResults: The mean time to maintenance dose for the 79 treatment
vials was 240.2 days (range, 76-720 days). Males (mean 294.7 days) took significantly longer than females (mean 205.1 days) to reach maintenance dose (p = 0.007). Asthmatics (mean 285.5 days) took significantly longer than Selleck Salubrinal nonasthmatics (mean 218.0 days) to reach maintenance dose (p = 0.008). Age also significantly affected the length of the escalation phase; each additional year of age was associated with an increase in 3.9 days needed to reach maintenance dose (p = 0.002).\n\nConclusion: Gender, asthma, and age significantly impact the time required to reach maintenance dose during SCIT. (C) 2012 ARS-AAOA, LLC.”
The Rasch measurement model provides robust analysis of the internal construct validity of outcome measures. We reviewed the application of Rasch analysis in musculoskeletal medicine https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly333531.html as part of the work leading to discussion in a Special Interest Group in Rasch Analysis at Outcome Measures in Rheumatology 11. Methods. A systematic literature review of SCOPUS and MEDLINE was performed (January 1, 1985, to February 29, 2012. Original research reports in English using “Rasch” or “Item Response Theory” in musculoskeletal diseases were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. The topics of focus and analysis methodology details were recorded. Results. Of 212 articles reviewed, 114 were included: The number of publications rose from 1 in 1991-1992 to 23 in 2011 February 2012. Disease areas included rheumatoid arthritis (28%). osteoarthritis (16.6%), and general musculoskeletal disorders (43%). Sixty-six reports (57.9%) evaluated psychometric properties of existing scales and 35(30.7%) involved development of new scales. Nine articles (7.9%) were on methodology illustration. Four articles were on item banking and computer adaptive testing. A majority of the articles reported fit statistics, while the basic Rasch model assumption (i.e.
In under-privileged homes, there are more possible breeding areas and environmental conditions that may improve the chances of Aedes aegypti survival.”
“Two groups of cubic specimens from diaphysis of bovine femur, intact and completely demineralized, were axially compressed. One half of the samples from each group were loaded along the axis of the femur (L) and the other – perpendicularly (T). Intact samples were characterized in terms of elastic modulus; for demineralized samples secant modulus of elasticity was calculated.
During compression an acoustic emission (AE) signal was recorded and AE events and energy were analyzed.\n\nSamples of intact bone did not reveal any anisotropy under compression at the stress of 80 MPa. However, AE signal PI3K inhibitor indicated an initiation of failure in samples loaded in T direction. Demineralized samples were anisotropic under compression. Both secant modulus of elasticity and AE parameters were significantly higher in T direction than in L direction, which is attributed to shifting and separation of lamellae of collagen fibrils and lamellae in bone matrix.”
“Background: Although several clinical trials have suggested that postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve survival of patients with
gastric cancer, the optimal treatment duration has not been studied. This retrospective analysis evaluated the outcomes of patients with gastric cancer treated with six cycles of fluorouracil-based treatment compared C59 mouse with a cohort treated with four or eight cycles. Methods: We retrospectively identified 237 patients with stage IB-IIIC gastric cancer who received four, six, or eight cycles of fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy administered every
3 weeks after radical gastrectomy. The endpoint was overall survival (OS). Factors associated with prognosis were also analyzed. Results: The estimated 3-year OS rates for the four-, six-, and eight-cycle cohorts were 54.4%, 76.1%, and 68.9%, respectively; and the estimated 5-year OS rates were 41.2%, 74.0%, and 65.8%, respectively. Patients who received six cycles were ZD1839 manufacturer more likely to have a better OS than those who received four cycles (P = 0.002). Eight cycles failed to show an additional survival benefit (P = 0.454). In the multivariate analysis, the number of chemotherapy cycles was associated with OS independent of clinical covariates (P smaller than 0.05). Subgroup analysis suggested that among patients in all age groups examined, male patients, and subgroups of fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin combined chemotherapy, stage III, poor differentiation, and gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with a statistically significant benefit of OS compared with four cycles (P smaller than 0.05).
In the pH range of 4-8.5, although buy AZD1208 the removal efficiencies of H2S and NH3 remained 96-98% and 100%, respectively, the metabolic products demonstrated different removal mechanisms and pathways. NH4-N and NO2/NO3-N were dominated at pH a parts per thousand currency sign6 and a parts per thousand yen7, respectively, indicating
the differentiated contributions from physical/chemical adsorption and bio-oxidation. Moreover, the HBTF demonstrated a good dynamic stability to withstand shock loadings by recovering immediately to the original. During shock loading, only 15.4% and 17.9% of captured H2S and NH3 was biodegraded, respectively. After 2, 11, and 48 days of starvation, the HBTF system
reached a full performance within reasonable re-startup times (2-80 h), possibly due to the consumption of reduced S and N species in biomass or activated carbon thus converted into SO4-S and NO3-N during starvation Cyclopamine solubility dmso period. The results helped to understand the fundamental knowledge by revealing the effects of pH and transient loadings linked with individual removal mechanism for H2S and NH3 co-treatment in different conditions.”
“Chromosome segregation requires the generation of force at the kinetochore-the multiprotein structure that facilitates attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. This force is required both to move chromosomes and to signal the formation of proper bioriented attachments. To understand the role of force in these processes, it is critical to define how force is generated at kinetochores, the contributions of this force to chromosome movement, and how the kinetochore is
structured and organized to withstand and respond to force. Classical studies and recent work provide a framework to dissect the mechanisms, functions, and consequences of force at kinetochores.”
“Background\n\nNephrotic syndrome is the collective name given to a group of symptoms that include proteinuria, lipiduria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema, hypercholesterolaemia, elevated triglycerides, and hyperlipidaemia. Hyperlipidaemia is thought to aggravate glomerulosclerosis (hardening of blood vessels in the kidneys) 5-Fluoracil research buy and enhance progression of glomerular disease. Studies have established that reduction in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with reduction in risk of cardiovascular diseases. In 2011, the European Society of Cardiology and European Atherosclerosis Society guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemia recommended use of statins as first-line agents in the management of nephrotic dyslipidaemia. However, the effectiveness and safety of statins for people with nephrotic syndrome remains uncertain.
(Optom Vis Sci 2011; 88: 789-794)”
“Hemangiomas are the most common benign primary tumors of the liver and their prevalence ranges from 0.4% to 20%. Approximately 85% of hemangiomas are clinically asymptomatic and are incidentally detected in imaging studies performed for other causes. In a very small minority of patients, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain,
distension, palpable mass, obstructive jaundice, bleeding, and signs and symptoms of Budd-Chiari syndrome may develop due to compression of bile duct, hepatic vein, portal vein, and adjacent organs. Occasionally, external compression of inferior vena cava may lead to edema and/ or indirect symptoms such as Vorinostat deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs. In this report,
we present a case of giant hepatic hemangioma that completely filled the right lobe of the liver. The patient presented with bilateral lower limb edema and pain. A computed tomography scan detected a 9 x 11 x 12 cm mass indicative of a hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver that compressed the inferior vena cava. The patient refused treatment initially but returned 6 months later presenting with the same symptoms. At that time, the mass had increased in size and a hepatectomy was performed, preserving the middle hepatic vein. By postoperative month 13, the swelling in the lower extremities had decreased significantly and the inferior vena cava appeared normal.”
“OBJECTIVE: Intramedullary learn more spinal sarcoidosis is a difficult diagnosis to make because of its nonspecific clinical and imaging features and its imitation of other common spine disorders. We present a patient with intramedullary spinal sarcoidosis that mimicked spinal cord injury from a cervical disk herniation.\n\nMETHODS: Relevant information was extracted from the patient’s medical and imaging records. A thorough literature review subsequently was performed.\n\nRESULTS: A 59-year-old woman
presented to our institution with several months LY3023414 nmr of intermittent parathesias, pain, and subjective weakness in her right upper and lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated a large osteophyte-disk complex at C4-5 adjacent to a small area of intramedullary spinal cord enhancement. The patient underwent C4-5 anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion for the osteophyte-disk complex. She initially improved postoperatively but subsequently worsened after a few months. Because of more prominent spinal cord enhancement, a posterior laminectomy and biopsy of the enhancing lesion was performed. Intramedullary spinal sarcoidosis was diagnosed, and she was treated medically with steroids and immunosuppressive agents.\n\nCONCLUSION: Spinal sarcoidosis can mimic more common disease processes, such as cervical spondylosis.
All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To investigate auditory dysfunction in patients with tinnitus and normal hearing thresholds using two sensitive audiological measures. Design: The study was designed to investigate the characteristics of Audioscan and DPOAE tests in tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds. LY2157299 inhibitor Audioscan and DPOAE notches were analysed and compared. All tests were performed in a sound-treated chamber or in a sound-treated
room. Study sample: Forty-five tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds were examined following a written clinical protocol. Results: The averaged hearing levels obtained from tinnitus participants were significantly worse at high frequencies than those derived from CX-6258 order the normative data. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Audioscan and DPOAE
notches, whose central frequencies matched tinnitus frequencies in the mid-frequency regions, but not in the low-and high-frequency regions. A significant correlation was found between the centre frequencies of the Audioscan notches and the DPOAE notches from 500 to 4000 Hz. Conclusion: Tinnitus in different frequency regions may be associated with different underlying mechanisms of tinnitus generation. Some negative results on the Audioscan and DPOAE notches matching tinnitus pitches may be due to a limited set of discrete frequencies used for the tinnitus pitch matching test.”
“Structural, spectroscopic and optical properties of lead tellurite glass ceramics doped with variable amounts of erbium ions and codoped with fixed amounts of silver (Ag2O or Ag metallic nanoparticles, AgNPs) have been studied. The investigation of the samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet visible (DR-UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The average unit-cell parameter, crystallite size and the quantitative ratio of the crystallographic phases in the selleck products samples were evaluated from the XRD data. FTIR spectroscopy data show that
the glass ceramics network mainly consists of TeO3 and TeO4 structural units. The increase of the Er2O3 content determines a TeO3 – bigger than TeO4 conversion but the process is also influenced by the nature of the codopant (Ag2O or AgNPs) present in the samples. The optical band gap (E-g(opt)) values, determined from the DR-UV vis spectra, decrease with increasing the erbium content of the samples. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements evidenced the important peaks located at around 430 nm and 708 nm due to the Pb2+ ions and at 525 and 547 nm due to the Er3+ ions present in the studied samples. The Er3+ :Ag codoping was found to produce antagonistic effects (quenching/enhancement) of the luminescence emission of Er3+ ions in the studied samples. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.
Orexin reduction has broad implications, which are as yet little appreciated in the chronic inflammatory conditions listed, whether they be infectious or sterile in origin. Not only is reduction in orexin levels characterized by loss of appetite, it is associated with inappropriate and excessive sleep
and, when dramatic and chronic, leads to coma. Moreover, such reduction is associated with impaired cognition and a reduction in motor control. We propose that advanced understanding and appreciation of the importance of orexin as a key regulator of pathways involved in the maintenance of normal appetite, sleep patterns, cognition, and motor control may afford novel treatment opportunities.”
“A novel polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) mediated lipid nanoemulsion as drug-delivery carrier for paclitaxel (PTX) AZD0530 was successfully developed. The formulation comprised a PEG400 solution of the drug (25 mg/mL) that would be mixed with commercially 20% lipid emulsion to form PTX-loaded nanoemulsion (1 mg/mL) prior to use. This two-vial formulation of PTX-loaded lipid nanoemulsion (TPLE) could significantly reduce extraction of reticuloendothelial system (RES) organs and increase tumor uptake, and exhibited more potent antitumor efficacy on bearing A2780 or Bcap-37 tumor nude mice compared to conventional
PTX-loaded lipid nanoemulsion (CPLE). TPLE did not cause haematolysis check details and intravenous irritation response yet, and showed the same cytotoxicity against HeLa cells as Taxol (R), and its LD50 was 2.7-fold higher than that of Taxol (R), suggesting its good safety and druggability. In addition, TPLE displayed distinctly faster release of PTX, a greater proportion of PTX in phospholipids layer and a smaller share in oil phase than CPLE. From the Clinical Editor: This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential advantage of a novel PEG400-mediated two-vial formulation of lipid nanoemulsion
as drug carrier for PTX in clinical application for the cancer therapy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The ovarian steroid hormone progesterone is essential LY3039478 purchase for normal mammary gland physiology but may also play a role in breast cancer. Highly potent and selective antiprogestins may therefore represent a new treatment option for this disease. Here we studied the effects of the new antiprogestin Lonaprisan on the T47D breast cancer cell line. Strong inhibition of cell proliferation and arrest in the G0/G1 phase were observed, as well as induction of a senescence-like phenotype. This was accompanied by p21 induction through direct binding of Lonaprisan-bound progesterone receptor (PR) to the promoter. Reduction of p21 levels blunted the antiproliferative effects of Lonaprisan.
“The DLTIDDSYWYRI motif (Ln2-P3) of human laminin-2 has been reported to promote PC12 cell attachment through syndecan-1; however, the in vivo effects of Ln2-P3 have not been GDC-0973 datasheet studied. In Schwann cells differentiated from skin-derived precursors, the peptide was effective in promoting cell attachment and spreading in vitro. To examine the effects of Ln2-P3 in peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo, we developed a dual-component poly(p-dioxanone) (PPD)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) artificial nerve graft. The novel graft was coated with scrambled peptide or Ln2-P3 and used to bridge a 10mm defect in rat sciatic nerves. The dual-component nerve grafts provided tensile strength comparable
to that of a real rat nerve trunk. The Ln2-P3-treated grafts promoted early-stage peripheral nerve regeneration by enhancing the nerve regeneration rate and significantly increased the myelinated fibre density compared with scrambled peptide-treated controls. These findings indicate that Ln2-P3, combined with tissue-engineering scaffolds, has potential biomedical applications selleck inhibitor in peripheral nerve injury repair. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background. Our aim was to examine
the potential role of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 during oral cancer progression and the prognostic value in oral precancerous lesions.\n\nMethods. A total of 204 patients with oral cancer and 86 with precancerous lesions were investigated. GRP78 expression was determined in the lesion tissues by Western blot analysis. Association of GRP78 with clinicopathology or disease prognosis was examined using Fisher’s exact, Kaplan-Meier, or Cox regression method.\n\nResults. Hyperexpression of GRP78 was found to be correlated with increasing Selleckchem Veliparib malignant potential of oral lesions, with 14% in leukoplakia, 27% in erythroplakia, 50% in verrucous lesion, and 74% in oral cancer (p < .0001), suggesting this molecule plays a crucial role in the early steps of
oral oncogenesis. In patients with precancerous lesions of the oral cavity, GRP78 expression predicts poorer same-site premalignancy-free survival (p = .002) and malignancy-free survival rates (p = .002).\n\nConclusion. Determination of GRP78 expression levels might enable a better risk stratification for patients with oral premalignant lesions. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 32: 1028-1039, 2010″
“During the 2003-2006 period, the relationship of mortality from ischemic stroke (IS) and the environmental pollution in Yaroslavl, a Russian industrial center, was studied in 1983 patients with first ischemic stroke. A sample consisted of 978 men and 1005 women, the average age was 60.9 +/- 8.9 and 65.9 +/- 8.9 years, respectively. Additionally, the interactions between pollution, age, gender, and some of the major risk factors in these patients were analyzed.
Moreover, a group analysis showed that therapy-induced recovery following SFA was characterized by (a) a significant correlation between improvement and activation in Staurosporine mw the left precentral gyrus (BA4/6) before therapy, and (b) the recruitment of the left inferior parietal lobule, an area known for its role in semantic integration, following therapy with SFA. Individual fMRI analyses showed that although adaptive brain plasticity
appeared to operate differently in each patient, best responders to SFA therapy recruited less areas after training compared to participants having shown less recovery who showed a larger number of activated areas sustaining recovery. The results of the present study suggest that a significant activation of BA4/6 could indicate the use of SFA to achieve successful outcome. Also our results suggest that greater SFA improvement in chronic aphasia is associated with recruitment of areas in the left hemisphere. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Dynamic Contrast Enhanced imaging (DCE-imaging) following a contrast agent bolus allows the extraction of information on tissue micro-vascularization. The dynamic signals obtained from DCE-imaging are modeled by pharmacokinetic compartmental models which integrate the Arterial Input Function. These models use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe
the exchanges between the arterial and capillary this website plasma and the extravascular-extracellular space. Their least squares fitting takes into account measurement noises but fails to deal with unpredictable fluctuations due to external/internal sources of variations (patients’ anxiety, time-varying parameters, measurement errors in the input function, etc.). Adding Brownian components to the ODEs leads to stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In DCE-imaging,
SDEs are discretely observed with an additional measurement noise. We propose to estimate the parameters of these noisy SDEs by maximum likelihood, using the Kalman filter. In DCE-imaging, the contrast agent injected in vein arrives in plasma with an unknown time delay. The delay parameter induces a change-point in the drift of the SDE and ODE models, which is estimated also. Estimations based on the SDE and ODE pharmacokinetic models are Selleckchem P5091 compared to real DCE-MRI data. They show that the use of SDE provides robustness in the estimation results. A simulation study confirms these results. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“An efficient organocatalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of 3-substituted oxindoles to activated vinylphosphonates has been described. This reaction allows the facile synthesis of a new family of organophosphorus derivatives bearing an oxindole motif in high chemical yields with good to excellent stereoselectivities.”
“There have been few neurobehavioral toxicology studies on newborn animals.
Therefore, inhibition of these
enzymes does not seem to be the mode by which NAM exerts these effects. These results suggest the presence of a novel mechanism, not previously documented, by which NAM can alter gene expression levels via changes in the histone H3K4 trimethylation state. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine consisting of two molecular species, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, and IL-1R antagonist ( gene: Il1rn) Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor is the endogenous suppressor. Il1rn(-/-) mice spontaneously develop autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and aortitis, and a dermatitis that histologically resembles human psoriasis. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying this dermatitis, however, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated
that the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was enhanced at the site of inflammation. The development of dermatitis was completely suppressed in Tnfsf1a(-/-) but not in Il6(-/-) mice, similar to that observed in arthritis and aortitis. However, IL-17 deficiency did not affect the development of dermatitis at all, in clear contrast to that of arthritis and aortitis. Different from arthritis and aortitis, adoptive transfer of Il1rn(-/-) T cells did not induce dermatitis in the recipient SCID mice and skin lesions see more developed in Il1rn(-/-) SCID mice, indicating that T cells are not involved in the development of skin lesions. In support selleck chemical for this, bone marrow cell transplantation experiments showed that TNF produced by skin residential cells, but not bone marrow cell-derived cells, was important for the development of dermatitis. Furthermore, we showed that IL-1 directly enhanced TNF and chemokine expression in keratinocytes. These observations suggest that excess IL-1 signaling directly activates keratinocytes to produce TNF and chemokines, resulting in the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions without the involvement of autoimmunity in Il1rn(-/-)
mice. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 185: 1887-1893.”
“The prophylactic and therapeutic arsenal against malaria is quite restricted and all the antimalarials currently in use have limitations. Thus, there is a need to investigate medicinal plants in the search for phytochemicals which can be developed into drugs. In our investigation, essential oils (EOs) were obtained from Vanillosmopsis arborea (Gardner) Baker, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Croton zehntneri Pax & K. Hoffm., aromatic plants abundant in northeastern Brazil, which are found in the caatinga region and are used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of these EOs was characterized by GC-MS, and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were well represented. We assessed the in vitro activity of these EOs and also individual EO chemical components against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain) and the in vivo activity of EOs in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.