Newborn anthropometry was not associated with maternal age, educa

Newborn anthropometry was not associated with maternal age, educational level SCH772984 or living location.

Conclusions: Independently of gestational age and newborn sex, the main predictors of birth weight and length were maternal pre-pregnancy anthropometry and weight gain during gestation, to smoke during pregnancy, parity and maternal origin. Our results identify potential modifiable factors influencing newborn body size.”
“Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is probably under-used because of fears concerning the body image of patients. For the purposes of providing exact information for patients when choosing between PD and hemodialysis, we studied the extent of increase in waist circumference by infusing


Methods: The abdominal circumference

of 44 PD patients was measured before and after infusion of dialysate. The change in circumference was compared to body mass index (BMI) and length of the abdominal cavity, defined by the distance between the processus xiphoideus and the os pubis.

Results: Mean abdominal circumferences at the umbilicus and the iliac crest increased from 92.6 +/- 10.1 to 95.5 +/- 10.0 cm and from 95.2 +/- 8.5 to 96.2 +/- 6.3 cm, respectively, when dialysate was infused (p value for both <0.01). A dialysate volume of 2000 mL increased the circumference only slightly more than the increase seen with 1500 mL. The change in circumference was not correlated with the circumference before the infusion, BMI, height of the patient, or length of the abdominal cavity.

Conclusions: This study shows that normal PD fill volumes increase the waist circumference only a little. This CBL0137 finding should ease the patient’s presumption of PD changing the body image.”

The treatment of methane in bioreactors with an aqueous phase such as biofilters is limited by low methane water solubility. In the case of biotrickling filters (BTF), the continuous trickling water is a barrier to methane transfer. In a previous study, the use of non-ionic surfactants improved the performance of biofilters treating methane. RESULTS: Three BTFs treating methane were operated for 1 year under fixed operating conditions of methane concentration of 4.8 g m-3 and air flow rate of 0.25 m-3 WH-4-023 h-1. Three kinds of packing material were tested and a non-ionic surfactant (Brij 35) was periodically added to the nutrient solution at a concentration of 0.5% w/w. Methane conversion was a function of the type of packing materials and the presence of Brij 35 in the nutrient solution. When Brij 35 was added, the methane conversion doubled with respect to the BTFs without surfactant. CONCLUSION: The addition of Brij 35 to the nutrient solution increased the performance of the BTF for the three packing materials tested. The non-ionic surfactant also affected the carbon dioxide production. The BTFs were stable when the packed bed was washed to remove the excess of biomass.

(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Group A strept

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Group A streptococcal infections are associated with a variety of infections and a subset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tic disorders. Screening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics in patient with streptococcal

infection of skin must be effective in identifying subjects who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).”
“Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex disease harboring a myriad of genetic and epigenetic changes. The dismal survival of patients diagnosed with PC is in part due to de novo and acquired resistance to conventional therapeutics, resulting from deregulated signaling including aberrant expression of small nc miRNAs. Emerging research in this area has lead to the identification ACP-196 order and characterization of deregulated miRNAs, which have generated

a renewed interest and hope Galunisertib research buy in that novel targeting of miRNAs may lead to a better clinical outcome for patients diagnosed with PC. However, recent evidence suggests that miRNAs are also under a highly coordinated system of epigenetic regulation emphasizing the fact that the design of miRNAs as targeted therapy may not be as simple as originally anticipated. For a successful miRNA-based therapeutic regimen, a holistic integrated approach may be required to take into account because of these emerging epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. In this article, we will discuss miRNA epigenetics, it’s significance in PC and the use of a systems science to identify these aberrant epigenetically groomed miRNAs, and we believe that such knowledge would likely benefit further research to realize the dream of miRNA-based targeted Cyclopamine research buy therapy for human malignancies.”
“The suspicion of CMPA is based on detailed family and medical history, skin test, patch test, laboratory test, an elimination diet and food challenge. The general treatment for CMPA

is dietary: elimination of cow’s milk protein and introduction of extensively hydrolyzed whey or casein formula, aminoacid formula, and soy formula. Extensively hydrolyzed whey or casein formula is recommend as first choice for infants in mild or moderate reactions, aminoacid formula in severe CMPA and in cases with poor response to extensively hydrolysed whey or casein formula.”

To evaluate the effect of central corneal thickness (CCT) on the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) with the rebound (TonoVet (R)) and applanation (TonoPen XL (R)) tonometers in beagle dogs.

Animal studied

Both eyes of 60 clinically normal dogs were used.


The IOP was measured by the TonoVet (R), followed by the TonoPen XL (R) in half of the dogs, while the other half was measured in the reverse order. All CCT measurements were performed 10 min after the use of the second tonometer.

Regarding to the extrusion process parameters, it has been noted

Regarding to the extrusion process parameters, it has been noted that higher feed rates, lower screw speeds and narrower kneading blocks have reduced the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the compatibilized PBT/ABS blends, thereby suggesting that the molecule integrity of blend polymeric components has been preserved and that a good dispersion of the ABS domains in the PBT matrix has been achieved. Injection molded PBT/ABS blends were obtained to compare to the extruded ribbons. The mechanical tests for both specimens

have shown the same trends. The injection molded samples have presented poorer impact strength, tensile strain at break and tensile strength, when compared to the respective extruded samples. That behavior has been attributed to the high level of molecular orientation resulting from the injection molding Selleck Rigosertib process and mainly to PBT degradation during process. The PBT degradation could have increased its degree of crystallinity, which has been confirmed by DSC measurements. As result, the blend became more brittle, decreasing its Izod impact strength. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“We investigated numerically and experimentally the transmission of terahertz (THz) waves through single and multiple metallic defects created Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor in a one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) by inserting single metallic wires or arrays of parallel metallic wires into the air-gap defect of the 1D PC. The transmission properties

of the metallic defect modes generated in the photonic bandgap (PBG) were characterized by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. For single metallic defects, it was found that the appearance the defect mode depends not only on the diameter of the metallic wires but also on the polarization of the THz wave. For transverse magnetic (TM) polarized waves whose electric fields are parallel to the metallic wires, the incident THz wave is generally split into two identical parts. In sharp contrast, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with enhanced field intensity is observed for transverse electric (TE) polarized waves whose electric fields are perpendicular to the metallic wires. In both cases, two resonant modes with reduced transmittance are observed in the PBG. While SC79 cost the resonant mode related to SPPs is found at the long-wavelength side of the original defect mode, the resonant mode without the excitation of SPPs appears at the short-wavelength side. Numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique revealed that the electric field of SPPs is more tightly confined at the surface of the metallic wire when it is placed in the PC, implying that the confinement of a THz wave in the propagation direction will facilitate the localization of SPPs in the transverse direction. For two parallel metallic wires, the defect mode was found to depend on the separation between them.

meliloti interactions is proposed (C) 2011 Elsevier


meliloti interactions is proposed. (C) 2011 Elsevier

Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Visual attention is thought to be driven by the interplay between low-level visual features and task dependent information content of local image regions, as well as by spatial viewing biases. Though dependent on experimental paradigms and model assumptions, this idea has given rise to varying claims that either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms dominate visual attention. To contribute toward a resolution of this discussion, here we quantify the influence of these factors and their relative importance in selleck products a set of classification tasks. Our stimuli consist of individual image patches (bubbles). For each bubble we derive three measures: a measure of salience based on low-level stimulus features, a measure of salience based on the task dependent information content derived from our subjects’ classification responses and a measure of salience based on spatial viewing biases. Furthermore, we measure the empirical salience of each bubble based on our subjects’ measured eye gazes thus characterizing the overt

visual attention each bubble receives. A multivariate linear model relates CBL0137 Apoptosis inhibitor the three salience measures to overt visual attention. It reveals that all three salience measures contribute significantly. The effect of spatial viewing biases is highest and rather constant in different tasks. The contribution of task dependent information is a close runner-up. Specifically, in a standardized task of judging facial expressions it scores highly. The contribution of low-level features is, on average, somewhat lower. However, in a prototypical search task, without an available template, it makes a strong contribution on par with the two other measures. Finally, the contributions of the three factors are only slightly redundant, and the semi-partial correlation coefficients are only slightly lower than the coefficients for full correlations. These data provide evidence that all

three measures make significant and independent contributions and that none can be neglected in a model of human overt visual attention.”
“Background: Scarce data are available on Plasmodium falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance in Pakistan. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of P. falciparum resistance associated polymorphisms in field isolates from southern Pakistan.

Methods: ITF2357 Blood samples from 244 patients with blood-slide confirmed P. falciparum mono-infections were collected between 2005-2007. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt K76T), multi drug resistance (pfmdr1 N86Y), dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N, I164L) and dihydropteroate synthetase (pfdhps A436S, G437A and E540K) genes and pfmdr1 gene copy numbers were determined using PCR based methods.

Results: The prevalence of pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y was 93% and 57%, respectively.

73; 95% CL, 1 14, 2 62) In the case-control study, high likeliho

73; 95% CL, 1.14, 2.62). In the case-control study, high likelihood of OSA was associated with higher odds of chronic TMD (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CL, 2.03, 6.52). Both studies RO4929097 cost supported a significant association of OSA symptoms and TMD,

with prospective cohort evidence finding that OSA symptoms preceded first-onset TMD.”
“The aim of this study is to quantitatively investigate the short-term effects of RF tissue-tightening treatment in in vivo rabbit dermal collagen fibrils. These effects were measured at different energy levels and at varying pass procedures on the nanostructural response level using histology and AFM analysis. Each rabbit was divided into one of seven experimental groups, which included the following: control group, and six RF group according to RF energy (20 W and 40 W) and three RF pass procedures. The progressive changes in the diameter and D-periodicity of rabbit dermal collagen fibrils were investigated selleck kinase inhibitor in detail over a 7-day post-treatment period. The dermal tissues treated with the RF tissue-tightening device showed more prominent inflammatory responses with inflammatory cell ingrowth compared to the control. This effect showed more prominent with the passage of day after treatment. Although an increase in the diameter and D-periodicity of dermal collagen fibrils was identified immediately after the RF treatment, a decrease in the morphology of dermal collagen fibrils continued

until post-operative Dihydrotestosterone ic134 day 7. Furthermore, RF treatment led to the loss of distinct borders. Increases in RF energy with the same pass procedure, as well as an increase in the number of RF passes,

increased the occurrence of irreversible collagen fibril injury. A multiple-pass treatment at low energy rather than a single-pass treatment at high energy showed a large amount of collagen fibrils contraction at the nanostructural level.”
“Background and objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) incur heavy utilization of health-care resources for patients who require hospitalization. We evaluated whether an early outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP) after hospitalization for AECOPD could reduce acute health-care utilization over the succeeding year.

Methods: Sixty patients admitted with AECOPD were randomized to either PRP or usual care (UC). The PRP group received 8 weeks of outpatient rehabilitation programme 2-3 weeks after discharge from hospital. Lung function, 6 min walk test and dyspnoea score were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, while St George’s respiratory questionnaire and cardiopulmonary exercise test were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months.

Results: The PRP and UC groups demonstrated a 53.3% and 43.3% risk of readmissions at 12 months (incident risk ratio 0.97 (95% CI: 0.57-1.60), P = 0.90). The mean readmission rates were 1.00 +/- 1.20 and 1.03 +/- 1.87 (P = 0.

In 45 percent of the children at least one more tube insertion wa

In 45 percent of the children at least one more tube insertion was needed. A permanent perforation after tube treatment was seen in 2 percent of the treated ears. After 5 years, one half of the children were declared free from middle ear disease, but at the termination of the study 17 percent of the children were still in need of regular visits to an otologist due to residual ear


Conclusion: This study shows the natural course of treatment with middle ear ventilation tubes in a cohort of children aged 0-10 years during a ten-year period. The incidence of ventilation tube treatment was 1 percent. It is evident that many children need a prolonged contact with an ear-nose and throat specialist when treated with a ventilation tube. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Lung adenocarcinoma is a highly heterogeneous disease with various etiologies, prognoses, and responses to therapy. selleck Although genome-scale characterization

of lung adenocarcinoma has been performed, a comprehensive somatic mutation analysis of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers has not been conducted.

Methods: We analyzed whole exome sequencing data from 16 EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas and additional 54 tumors in two expansion cohort sets. Candidate loci were validated by target capture and Sanger sequencing. Gene set analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.

Results: We identified 27 genes potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. These included targetable genes involved in PI3K/mTOR signaling (TSC1, PIK3CA, AKT2) and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling (ERBB4) and genes not previously TH-302 highlighted in lung adenocarcinomas, such as SETD2 and PBRM1 (chromatin remodeling), CHEK2 and CDC27 (cell cycle), CUL3 and SOD2 (oxidative stress), and CSMD3 and TFG (immune response). In the expansion cohort (N = 70), TP53 was the most frequently

altered gene (11%), followed by SETD2 (6%), CSMD3 (6%), ERBB2 (6%), and CDH10 (4%). In pathway analysis, the majority of altered genes were involved in cell cycle/DNA repair (P < 0.001) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The genomic makeup of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas in never-smokers is remarkably diverse. Genes involved in cell cycle regulation/DNA repair are implicated in tumorigenesis and represent potential therapeutic targets.”
“Background: In North-African adults, location-specific reference values for membrane diffusion capacity (D(m)) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (V(c)) were needed. Objectives: To verify the applicability of previously published reference equations for D(m) and V(c) in North-African healthy adults (age 1 18 years) and to determine specific reference equations for North Africa.

Attending the self-management

Attending the self-management LEE011 solubility dmso programme improved disease knowledge and HRQOL 6 weeks later in this disadvantaged population. The intervention can improve the health of people with hepatitis C, independent of antiviral therapy. Future research will study longer-term

outcomes, effects on antiviral treatment and costs.”
“Metabolic networks perform some of the most fundamental functions in living cells, including energy transduction and building block biosynthesis. While these are the best characterized networks in living systems, understanding their evolutionary history and complex wiring constitutes one of the most fascinating open questions in biology, intimately related to the enigma of life’s origin itself. Is the evolution of metabolism subject to general principles, beyond the unpredictable accumulation of multiple historical accidents? Here we search for such principles by applying to an artificial chemical universe some of the methodologies developed for the study of genome scale models of cellular metabolism. In particular, we use metabolic flux constraint-based models to exhaustively search for artificial chemistry pathways that can optimally perform an array of elementary metabolic functions. Despite the simplicity of the model employed, we find that the ensuing pathways display a surprisingly rich set of properties, including the existence of autocatalytic cycles and

hierarchical modules, the appearance Selleckchem SBE-β-CD of universally preferable metabolites and reactions, and a logarithmic trend of pathway length as a function of input/output molecule size. Some of these properties can be derived analytically, borrowing methods previously used in cryptography. In addition, PLX3397 cost by mapping biochemical

networks onto a simplified carbon atom reaction backbone, we find that properties similar to those predicted for the artificial chemistry hold also for real metabolic networks. These findings suggest that optimality principles and arithmetic simplicity might lie beneath some aspects of biochemical complexity.”
“The states of interacting electron-hole pair in semiconductor nanotube in the presence of strong lateral homogeneous electric field are considered theoretically. It is shown in single-particle approximation that along with the size-quantization of charge carriers’ motion by the radial direction the external strong field leads to the additional (field) localization of particles by the angular variable also. The corresponding additional energy spectrum has an equidistance character. At the same time the strong external field polarizes the electron-hole pair and traps them on the opposite ends of tube’s diameter. Consequently, the excitonic complex with transversal dimensions of the order of the system’s diameter is formed in a nanotube. By using the variation approach, the binding energies and wave functions of first two states of such field excitonlike complex in the tube are also calculated.

“Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress refers to a condition o

“Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress refers to a condition of accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. A variety of biochemical stimuli or pathophysiologic conditions can directly or indirectly induce ER stress, leading to activation of an ER-originated adaptive signaling response called Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Recent studies demonstrated that ER stress and UPR signaling are critically

involved in the initiation and progression of many diseases, such as metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. In this study, we show that ER stress induced by pharmacologic reagents, including tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (Tg), promotes hepatic lipogenesis and lipid droplet formation. Using quantitative gene expression analysis, we identified 3 groups of key lipogenic regulators ABT737 or enzymes that are inducible by pharmacological ER stress in a human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. These ER stress-inducible lipogenic factors include: 1) lipogenic trans-activators including CCAAT/enhancer PLX-4720 supplier binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma),

PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1 alpha), and Liver X receptor alpha (LXR alpha); 2) components of lipid droplets including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27), adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP), fat-inducing transcript 2 (FIT2), and adipocyte AL3818 purchase lipid-binding protein (AP2); 3) key enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Supporting the role of pharmacologic ER stress in up-regulating de novo lipogenesis, TM or Tg treatment significantly increased accumulation of cytosolic lipid droplet formation in the hepatocytes. Moreover, we showed that forced expression of an activated form of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a potent UPR trans-activator, can dramatically increase expression of PPAR gamma and

C/EBP alpha in Huh-7 cells. The identification of ER stress-inducible lipogenic regulators provides important insights into the molecular basis by which acute ER stress promotes de novo lipogenesis. In summary, the findings from this study have important implication in understanding the link between ER stress and metabolic disease.”
“Objectives: To investigate the therapeutic impact of combining extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and early coronary revascularization on acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-induced cardiopulmonary collapse.

Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 35 consecutive patients rescued by ECMO for AMI-induced cardiopulmonary collapse in a single institution between June 2003 and December 2011. Coronary revascularization was performed soon after ECMO initiation.

I hope that many physicians caring for patients with acute chest

I hope that many physicians caring for patients with acute chest pain will actually take the time to read the new 2011 ESC guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes

in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Certainly, application of the principles highlighted in there will help them in their daily clinical work.”
“Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping ability (apical transportation and straightening) of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments (ProTaper Universal, Hero 642 Apical, FlexMaster) with noncutting tips in curved root canals of extracted human teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Study design. Sixty mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary molars with curvatures of 25 degrees to 47 degrees were equally divided into 3 groups and embedded PD98059 in silicone impression material. The

root canals were scanned using CBCT (Next Generation i-CAT) and after scanning working length was determined with a hand file to preserve the original curvature. After preparation, teeth were placed learn more into their original positions on the silicone impression material and postinstrumentation scans were performed using the same parameters (4-cm field of view at 0.125-mm voxel). Pre- and postinstrumentation images obtained from root cross-sections located 2, 3, and 4 mm above the apical foramen were compared using Adobe Photoshop software. Transportation was measured by superimposition of final and initial images. Any distance (mm) between prepared and anatomic canal centers was defined as apical transportation. Canal curvatures were measured before and after instrumentation using computed tomography and images were exported to ImageJ software. Differences in the degree and radius of curvature were regarded as straightening. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

Results. Mean transportation

values were 0.10 +/- 0.03 mm for ProTaper Universal, 0.09 +/- 0.03 mm for Hero 642 Apical, and 0.07 +/- 0.02 mm for FlexMaster, and the differences were not significant. Mean values for straightening among the groups were not significantly different (P > .05). CGP 41251 The performances of all instruments were similar.

Conclusion. Apical transportation occurred with all the instruments despite their noncutting tips. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 111: 244-250)”
“X-ray scatter dark field imaging based on the Talbot-Lau interferometer allows for the measurement of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The latter is related to the variations in the electron density in the sample at the sub- and micron-scale. Therefore, information on features of the object below the detector resolution can be revealed.

In this article, it is demonstrated that scatter dark field imaging is particularly adapted to the study of a material’s porosity. An interferometer, optimized for x-ray energies around 50 keV, enables the investigation of aluminum welding with conventional laboratory x-ray tubes.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“Four e

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Four enantioselective, potentiometric

membrane electrodes based on carbon paste impregnated with alpha-, beta-, 2-hydroxyl- 3-trimethylammoniopropyl -beta-(as chloride salt) and.-cyclodextrins are proposed for the enantioanalysis of L-cysteine. The proposed electrodes exhibited near-Nernstian slopes in a wide linear concentration range: 10(-10) – 10(-3) mol/L, with very low detection limits, near 10(-11) mol/L. The surfaces of the electrodes are easily Ferrostatin-1 solubility dmso renewable by simply polishing on an alumina paper.”
“The structural organization of inulinases from yeasts, fungi, and plants are researched. For studying their sizes, molecular weight,

and permolecular organization, an approach consisting of a combination of atomic force microscopy with methods Oligomycin A order of dynamic light scattering, gel chromatography, and electrophoresis was used. It is shown that inulinases from Kluyveromyces marxianus and Aspergillus niger form geterodimers and inulinases from tubers of Helianthus tuberosus are present as both dimers and monomers. The role of various forms in the functional activity of inulinase molecules is discussed.”
“Background: Studies of injection drug use cessation have largely sampled adults in drug treatment settings. Little is known about injection cessation and relapse among young injection drug users (IDU) in the Community.

Methods: A total of 365 HCV-negative IDU under age 30 years were recruited by street outreach and interviewed quarterly for a prospective cohort between January 2000 and February 2008. Participants were followed for a total of 638 person-years and 1996 visits. We used survival analysis techniques to identify correlates of injection cessation (3 months) and relapse to injection.

Results: 67% of subjects were male, median age was 22 years (interquartile range (IQR) 20-26) and median years injecting was 3.6 (IQR 1.3-6.5). 28.8% ceased injecting during the follow-up period. Among those that ceased injecting, nearly

one-half resumed drug injection on subsequent visits, one-quarter maintained injecting cessation, and one-quarter were lost to follow-up. Participating in a drug treatment program in the last 3 months and injecting R406 order less than 30 times per month were associated with injection cessation. Injecting heroin or heroin mixed with other drugs, injecting the residue from previously used drug preparation equipment, drinking alcohol, and using benzodiazepines were negatively associated with cessation. Younger age was associated with relapse to injection.

Conclusion: These results suggest that factors associated with stopping injecting involve multiple areas of intervention, including access to drug treatment and behavioral approaches to reduce injection and sustain cessation.