Fig. 13 Transition in the transport sector. D in c on the right denotes direct emission;
D&I denotes the sum of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gant61.html direct emission and indirect emission Buildings In the reference scenario, energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings increases by about 60 % by 2050 relative to 2005 (Fig. 14). The energy mix changes considerably over time in the reference scenario, with a marked decrease of biomass and marked increase of electricity. Biomass accounts for about 30 % of total energy use in buildings in 2005, most of which is traditional biomass use in the residential sector. Traditional biomass use declines over time in the reference scenario: by 2050, it click here accounts for only 7 % of total energy consumption. In contrast to biomass, the consumption of modern forms of energy such as LPG, city gas, and electricity increases.
The increase in electricity consumption is the most learn more conspicuous: from 2005 to 2050, the share of electricity in total energy consumption rises from 26 to 47 %. The increased energy consumption, in combination with the fuel mix change, pushes up CO2 emissions substantially in the reference scenario. If indirect emission is included, CO2 emissions in 2050 increase by 88 % relative to 2005. Fig. 14 Transition in the buildings sector. D in c on the right denotes direct emission; D&I denotes the sum of direct emission and indirect emission Energy consumption
in the s600 scenario shows no significant divergence from that in the reference scenario, but the drastic improvement in the CO2 emission factor of electricity in the s600 scenario brings about a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions (a 75 % reduction relative to 2005) when indirect emissions are included. Technologies for achieving 50 % reduction The “Energy system transitions” section described energy system changes in a scenario where the targeted 50 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2050 is achieved. This section gives a more detailed assessment of the respective contributions of technologies to the GHG reductions in 2020 and 2050. In the s600 scenario, GHG emissions must be reduced by 12 GtCO2-eq and 51 GtCO2-eq in 2020 and 2050, respectively, relative to the reference scenario. Figure 15 shows the contributions Adenosine triphosphate of various technologies to GHG reduction in 2020 and 2050. Fig. 15 Contributions of technologies to GHG emission reduction in 2020 and 2050 in the s600 scenario In 2020, the power generation sector contributes the most to GHG emission reduction, accounting for 45 % of the total reduction achieved. The renewable energies, namely, solar, wind, and biomass, play a big role, together accounting for 31 % of the total GHG emission reduction. The remaining reduction in the power sector mainly comes from fuel switching and efficiency improvement in thermal power generation.