01, * = P < 0.05 and ns = no significant effect. The PX-478 clinical trial antibiotically-marked strains showed varied abilities to compete with their parent strains for nodule occupancy (Table 3). The mutants of UCT44b and UCT61a showed significantly reduced competitive abilities, while those of PPRICI3 retained their competitiveness relative to the parent strain. GSK3326595 Marked strain UCT40a Mkd2 also retained its competitive ability, while mutant strain UCT40a Mkd1 showed increased competitive ability compared to its unmarked parent (Table 3). The marked strains also varied in their retention of the antibiotic marker after plant passage (Table 4). Mutants of strain PPRICI3 retained their resistance marker, while
those of UCT40a and UCT44b showed a slight reduction in the number resistant to antibiotics. Two of the three UCT61a mutants (i.e. UCT61a Mkd1 and UCT61a Mkd2) lost their antibiotic markers after plant passage (Table 4). Table 3 Competitiveness of antibiotically-marked strains compared to their unmarked parents. Treatment Number of isolates tested Number able to grow on YMA + antibiotics % nodule occupancy by marked strain Competitive ability of marked strain UCT40a + UCT40aMkd1 40 30 75.0 *
I UCT40a + UCT40aMkd2 28 14 50.0 U UCT44b + UCT44bMkd1 18 4 22.2 * R UCT44b + UCT44bMkd2 38 12 31.6 * R UCT44b + UCT44bMkd3 26 10 38.5 U UCT61a + UCT61aMkd1 50 0 0.0 * R UCT61a + UCT61aMkd2 52 0 0.0 * R UCT61a + UCT61aMkd3 60 0 0.0 * R PPRICI3 + PPRICI3Mkd1 Oxymatrine 35 21 60.0 U PPRICI3 + PPRICI3Mkd2 31 19 61.2 U PPRICI3 + PPRICI3Mkd3 31 10 32.3 U * Denotes significant deviation from the expected frequency of 50% nodule occupancy using a χ2 test on pooled data, P < 0.05. Symbols indicate selleck compound I = increased, U = unchanged and R = reduced competitive ability of the marked strain compared to its unmarked parent. Table 4 Retention of the antibiotic resistance marker after plant passage. Marked Strain Number of
isolates tested Number able to grow on YMA + antibiotics % retention of antibiotic resistance UCT40aMkd 1 25 23 92 UCT40aMkd2 25 25 100 UCT44bMkd 1 20 20 100 UCT44bMkd 2 21 17 81 UCT44bMkd 3 19 16 84 UCT61aMkd 1 15 0 0 UCT61aMkd 2 14 0 0 UCT61aMkd 3 13 13 100 PPRICI3Mkd 1 19 19 100 PPRICI3Mkd 2 19 19 100 PPRICI3Mkd3 20 20 100 Indirect ELISA assays Results of the cross-reaction tests using pure antigens of PPRICI3, UCT40a, UCT44b and UCT61a (isolated from nodules of plants inoculated with these strains) are shown in Figure 2. Absorbance readings were clear and unambiguous; there were no cross-reactions, i.e. no false positive results for non-appropriate antigen × antibody combinations. In addition, non-specific adsorption using plant tissue or PBS substrate was low (≤ 0.15 OD405). There were some variations in the reactivity of the primary antibodies. For example, antibodies raised against strains UCT44b and UCT61a produced readings of ≥ 1.50 OD405, while strains PPRICI3 and UCT40a gave lower positive readings of about 1.0 OD405.