The inclusion criteria were a prostate volume larger than 20 mL PCI-32765 cost and peak urinary flow lower than 15 mL/sec, IPSS > 7 (International Prostrate Symptom Score). Only flows with at least 150 mL of voided volume were included. If the voided volume was below 150 mL at the initial evaluation, uroflowmetry
was repeated at the next visit. Measurements of three dimensions of the prostate and post-void residual volume (PVR) were made by using a 4.0 MHz transabdominal ultrasound probe positioned suprapubically in the transverse and saggital planes. The volume of prostate was calculated by the following formula: prostate volume (mL) = width (cm) × height (cm) × length (cm) × 0.523. PVR was calculated by the following formula: PVR (mL) = width (cm) × height (cm) × length (cm) × 0.625. Exclusion criteria included any of the following: Medical or surgical intervention for BPH or prostate cancer Anticholinergic, cholinergic, sympathomimetic, sympatholytic medication within one month of entry into the study Treatment with any medication affecting testosterone or estrogen levels The presence of any renal or hepatic impairment Stress or overflow incontinence Angiogenesis inhibitor PVR greater than 200 mL History of any type of malignancy
History of cardiovascular disease History of hypertension History of a cerebrovascular incident Diabetes mellitus Any known primary neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease Any other neurological diseases known to affect bladder function Active urinary tract infection History of any chronic inflammatory or infective disease Sinomenine The RDW reflects the variability in the size of erythrocytes (anisocytosis) and is routinely reported by the automated laboratory equipment used to perform CBCs. The RDW is calculated by dividing the standard deviation of erythrocyte volume by the MCV, and multiplying by 100 to express the result as
a percentage. Conditions such as a severe blood loss, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, iron deficiency, abnormal hemoglobin (sickle cell anemia), hemolysis, or hemolytic anemia can cause more immature cells to be released into the bloodstream, modifying the shape of the erythrocytes and resulting in an increased RDW. Patients diagnosed with the aforementioned pathologies were also excluded from the study. Baseline variables were described using means and standard deviation or percentages, as appropriate. The data were tested for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The one-way analysis of variance (anova) was used for the continuous factors between the different categories of prostate volume.