To this end, we have developed a computational program PathCom th

To this end, we have developed a computational program PathCom that models in vivo protein-DNA occupancy data as biochemical mechanisms under the assumption that occupancy levels can be related to binding duration and explicitly defined assembly/disassembly reactions. We exemplify the process with the assembly of the selleck chemicals general transcription factors (TBP, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH, and RNA polymerase II) at the genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces. Within the assumption inherent in the system our modeling suggests that TBP occupancy at promoters is rather

transient compared to other general factors, despite the importance of TBP in nucleating assembly of the preinitiation complex. PathCom is suitable for modeling any assembly/disassembly

pathway, given that all the proteins (or species) come together to form a complex.”
“Oxidative stress, cellular damage, and neuronal apoptosis are believed to underlie the progressive cognitive decline that accompanies natural aging and to be exacerbated in neurodegenerative diseases. Over the years, we have consistently demonstrated that iron neonatal treatment induces oxidative stress and memory deficits in adult rats, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remained undefined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether neonatal iron check details overload was associated with apoptotic cell death in adult and old rats. We analyzed Par-4 and caspase-3 immunoreactivity in specific brain areas including the hippocampus AZD5582 mouse CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), the adjacent cortex and the striatum

in adult (3 months-old) and aged (24 months-old) rats from control (vehicle-treated) and neonatally iron-treated groups. Neonatal iron treatment consisted of a daily oral administration of 10 mg/kg of Fe(+2), for three consecutive days, from post-natal 12-14. Control aged animals showed increased levels of both markers when compared to untreated adult animals. When adults were compared, iron-treated animals presented significantly higher Par-4 and caspase-3 immunoreactivities in CA1, CA3 and cortex. In the DG, this effect was statistically significant only for Par-4. Interestingly, when control and iron-treated aged animals were compared, a significant decrease in both apoptotic markers was observed in the later groups in the same areas. These results may be interpreted as an acceleration of aging progressive damages caused by iron overload and may contribute to a better understanding of the damaging potential of iron accumulation to brain function and the resulting increased susceptibility to neurodegeneration.”
“A hydrophobic organics surface selectively against glass was realized by employing nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure pulsed plasmas with a mixture of CF4 and N-2 gases.

A total of US$139546 was saved in staff salaries, benefits and tr

A total of US$139546 was saved in staff salaries, benefits and travel costs. The average cost savings per patient was US$2448. The use of videophone technology is a cost-effective alternative to in-home directly observed administration of TB medication.”
“To investigate the effect of an anti-TNF-alpha agent (etanercept) on recovery processes in a partial spinal cord injury (SCI) model using clinical and electrophysiological tests.

Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: group 1 [SCI

+ 2 ml saline intramuscular (i.m.), n = 8], group 2 (SCI + 2.5 mg/kg etanercept, i.m., 2-4 h after GDC-0941 datasheet SCI, n = 8) and group 3 (SCI + 2.5 mg/kg etanercept, i.m., 12-24 h after SCI, n = 8). Rabbits were evaluated before SCI, immediately after SCI, 1 week after, and 2 weeks after SCI, clinically by Tarlov scale and electrophysiologically by SEP.

Tarlov scores of groups 2 and 3 were significantly better than group 1, 2 weeks after SCI. SEP recovery was significantly better in groups 2

and 3 than group 1, 2 weeks after SCI.

These results show that blocking TNF-alpha mediated inflammation pathway by an anti-TNF-alpha agent enhances clinical and electrophysiological recovery processes in partial SCI model.”
“Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were identified in 40% of 54 strains from patients GSK2879552 presenting with tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure or relapse in Bangui, Central African Republic. Results obtained with the MTBDRplus

line-probe assay or rpoB sequencing were 86% concordant with rifampicin (RMP) resistant phenotypes, while the amplification refractory mutation system test was 71% concordant. No mutation was found in RMP-susceptible strains. MTBDRplus and sequencing were concordant with the detection of the S315T mutation in katG in 95% of MDR strains. Sequencing of pncA suggested pyrazinamide resistance in 50% of MDR strains. Knowledge of these resistances should help to implement treatment CBL0137 price in low-income countries.”
“Purpose How the lumbar neural foramina are affected by segmental deformities in patients in whom degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) is unknown. Here, we used multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to measure the morphology of the foramina in three dimensions, which allowed us to elucidate the relationships between foraminal morphology and segmental deformities in DLS.

Methods In 77 DLS patients (mean age, 69.4) and 19 controls (mean age, 69), the foraminal height (FH), foraminal width (FW), posterior disc height (PDH), interval between the pedicle and superior articular process (P-SAP), and cross-sectional foraminal area (FA) were measured on reconstructed MDCT data, using image-editing software, at the entrance, minimum-area point, and exit of each foramen.

The design and interpretation of these studies often pose unique

The design and interpretation of these studies often pose unique challenges.

Conclusion: Consumer studies are often part of a nonprescription drug development program. Continued efforts to improve consumer research should result in greater access to safe and effective nonprescription drug products for the American public.”
“To improve the efficacy podophyllotoxin (PODO) and etoposide (ETOPO) were encapsulated in poly-D, L-lactide nanoparticles (PLA NPs). The size of synthesised PODO-loaded PLA NPs and ETOPO-loaded

PLA NPs was 100 + 17nm and 163 + 20nm and their encapsulation efficiency was 17 and 48%, respectively. In vitro release studies showed initial burst release followed by slow and sustained release. In vitro cytotoxicity of synthesised NPs was assessed using A549 and CHO-K1 INCB024360 order cells. Blank PLA NPs did not show any toxicity. While PODO-loaded

PLA NPs showed higher in vitro cytotoxicity in comparison to ETOPO-loaded PLA NPs against both cell lines. Also, the cytotoxicity of both PODO-loaded PLA NPs and ETOPO-loaded PLA NPs was higher this website compared to pure drugs. Hence, this study documents the improvement in efficacy of these molecules upon encapsulation in PLA NPs and could be an important strategy for better therapeutics.”
“Objective: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), perinatal complications and long-term morbidity is gaining Fosbretabulin concentration increased attention. However, the global burden of GDM and the existing responses are not fully understood. We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize practices related to GDM screening and management.

Methods: Data on prevalence and country practices were obtained from a survey administered to diabetologists, obstetricians and others working on GDM in 173 countries. Results: GDM prevalence estimates range from <1% to 28%, with data derived from expert estimates, and single-site, multi-site and national prevalence assessments. Seventy-four percent of countries that completed the survey have national GDM guidelines or recommendations. Countries use a variety of screening approaches. In the countries where universal screening is recommended, the percentage of pregnant women screened ranges from 10% to >90%. Conclusions: We found large variations in estimated GDM prevalence, but direct comparison between countries is difficult due to different diagnostic strategies and subpopulations. Many countries do not perform systematic screening for GDM, and practices often diverge from guidelines. Countries need to carefully assess the cost and health impact of scaling up GDM screening and management in order to identify the best policy option for their population.”
“Stereoselective synthesis of ethyl-4,6-diaryl-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-nitro-3-formylcyclohexanecarboxylates was described.

For observing the physical and chemical properties of the slice,

For observing the physical and chemical properties of the slice, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, tensile strength, and elongation at break are used. All the experimental data indicate that the SiC/PI slice will be a very useful grinding material for obtaining a precision Surface. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113:

3033-3037, 2009″
“In this study, the distribution of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw meat products in Korea were investigated. A total of 155 meat products consisting of 52 beef, 62 pork, and 41 chicken were purchased randomly from 41 stores located in 5 different Bindarit purchase Korean provinces. E. coli and S. aureus were detected in 37.4 and 33.5% of the samples. Salmonella spp., C. jejuni, and V. parahaemolyticus were not detected. More Torin 2 in vivo than 30% of S. aureus were found to be enterotoxin producers and these organisms primarily possessed type A toxin genes. Conversely, verocytotoxin producing E. coli were not detected. Taken together, these results indicate that consumption of raw meat products may pose a

risk of foodborne disease and that good hygienic practices should be required to ensure public health.”
“We report a case of possible infective endocarditis without fever presenting with an acutely ischemic limb with prior

antimicrobial therapy preventing identification by culture AZD5153 in vitro of a microorganism. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing led to the identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis from an embolus removed at surgery and subsequent successful antibiotic treatment. We review the utility of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing in diagnosing infective endocarditis and other infectious conditions. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Superfast kinetics of Nd(+3), Eu(+3), and Gd(+3) ions were studied on the surfaces of N, N, N’, N’-tetramethylmalonamide (TMMA) and silsesquioxane (SSQXN-8) resins. TMMA and SSQXN-8 were prepared by suspension polymerization and sol-gel routes, respectively. They were identified using elemental analysis, FTIR, H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MIP, and BET surface area. Kinetic investigations were performed in batch conditions and different models were used to fit the data; Boyd and Helfferich models were found the best, The diffusion of the ions through the resins were very fast and found to be in the order of 10(-16) m(2)/S. Effective diffusions of the studied ions were found to be 10(-15) order of magnitude and directly proportional to the kinetic energy of the transition state. Delta S* values from -166.044 to -179.297 J mol(-1) K(-1) were estimated as entropy stability factors of the system. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The treatment groups (n = 5 in each group) had the tourniquet app

The treatment groups (n = 5 in each group) had the tourniquet applied for one hour, followed by one hour of reperfusion at 10 degrees C (cold) alone, at 10 degrees C with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, at 10 degrees selleck chemicals C with heme oxygenase inhibitor, at 10 degrees C with a combination of inhibitors, at 34 degrees C (warm) alone, at 34 degrees C with a heme oxygenase inducer, at 34 degrees C with a nitric oxide synthase inducer, or at 34 degrees C with a combination of inducers.

Results: Rats in the sham group did not show a significant increase in microvascular permeability. Rats in the warm ischemia/reperfusion

group displayed significant increases in microvascular permeability, as did the rats that received inhibitors of heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase at 10 degrees C. No significant increase in microvascular permeability was observed in the animals in the cold ischemia/reperfusion group or in animals that received inducers of heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase at 34 degrees C.

Conclusions: Local hypothermia protects skeletal muscle from increased microvascular

permeability following ischemia-reperfusion injury. This protective effect is also seen with the induction of the nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase systems at physiologic temperature. We also have shown that the protective effects of hypothermia are blocked by giving heme oxygenase and nitric oxide

synthase inhibitors while AG-881 in vivo keeping the muscle hypothermic. These findings demonstrate that heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase play a combined role in ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting this website possible pathways for clinical intervention to modulate injury seen following trauma, tourniquet use, vascular surgery, and microvascular surgery.”
“Depsipeptide (FK228), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was recently approved for use in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Roxithromycin (RXM) is a macrolide antibiotic that can induce apoptosis of some T-cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether combination of FK228 and RXM had a synergistic inhibitory effect on cell survival of various lymphoma cells and which signaling pathway was affected by the drugs in the presence or absence of chemokines, which were reported to inhibit apoptosis of some tumor cells. FK228 and RXM additively decreased the number of HUT-78, Ki-JK and EL-4 lymphoma cells at doses over 50nmol/L and 50mol/L, respectively. These drugs inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of EL-4 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Significant association between ERK phosphorylation and cell number or annexin V+ cells suggested that the ERK pathway may be critical for survival of EL-4 cells. Combination of 10 or 50nmol/L of FK228 and 10mol/L of RXM decreased cell number of HUT78 and EL-4 compared to a single use of each drug.

Finally, this review provides an update on the environmental fate

Finally, this review provides an update on the environmental fate of ILs. Their exploitation in green processes is still limited due to their low degradability but research is currently under way to design new more eco-friendly ILs. Copyright (C) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: In patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, guidelines recommend carotid revascularization within 2 weeks of the index event. The “”index event”" may be defined as either the first or the most recent event. The delay between the index event and carotid endarterectomy

(CEA) over a period of 6 years in a single centre was evaluated and the effect of defining the index event as either the first or the most recent event was assessed.

Design: Observational study.

Methods: 555 consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis >= 50% treated with CEA between 2007 and MEK162 mw 2012 were assessed. In 2010, changes to the in-hospital process of care to reduce delays in referral and selleck compound CEA were

introduced. These changes included, for example, improving access to physicians, imaging, and operating rooms. The delay from symptoms to surgery was expressed in days.

Results: The median time between the first event and surgery was reduced from 53 days (interquartile range [IQR] 30-78) in 2007 to 21 days (IQR 12-45) in 2012, and between the most recent event and CEA from 45 days (IQR 28-67) to 17 days (IQR 9-28). Patients referred directly by their general practitioner more often underwent CEA within 2 weeks than patients referred by specialists from other hospitals. Compared to patients with transient ischaemic attack or ocular symptoms, patients with ischaemic stroke more often underwent CEA within 2 weeks.

Conclusions: A small change in the process of care significantly

reduced the delay from the index event to CEA, but in 2012 it still exceeded 14 days in the majority of patients. The definition of the “”index event”" has a large impact on the total duration of delay, and should therefore be uniform across studies. (C) 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. selleck screening library Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The dissolution of wood and the regeneration of compounds such as cellulose and lignin is one of the challenges currently facing biorefineries. Lignin can be processed and employed for value-added products; therefore, environmentally friendly methods for wood solubilization and lignin regeneration are required and ionic liquids (ILs) offer an attractive alternative approach.

RESULTS: Dissolution of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus woods in imidazolium-based ILs ( 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) was studied as well as the regeneration of lignin from wood liquors.

On the other hand, no difference was observed for synthetic cis-1

On the other hand, no difference was observed for synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene selleck products rubber with the preparation method of the film or the heat treatment. This stress-strain behavior characteristics of NR can be ascribed to the changes in the branch points of the NR film with the casting method, which may result in differences in entanglement and crystallizability on stretching. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci

111: 2127-2133, 2009″
“The release kinetics of recombinant human bone morphogenic factor 2 (rhBMP-2) from collagen hydrogel in the presence of human blood plasma have been studied. The expulsion of rhBMP-2 from the collagen-BMP-2 complex by the competitive adhesion of collagen-binding proteins penetrating from plasma was firstly recognized. It was experimentally proven that that blood plasma fibronectin is the main collagen-binding protein, which is responsible for the controlled release of rhBMP-2.

As a result, a new collagen hydrogel with the incorporation of fibronectin was created which retained rhBMP-2 for a twice longer check details period as compared to the ordinary collagen hydrogel. A distinctive feature of this new collagen-fibronectin matrix is the slow release of rhBMP-2 in the first three days which allows for the avoiding of adverse effects in clinics caused by the rapid release of large amounts of rhBMP-2 from collagen hydrogel.”
“Background: Cannabis use (CU) and disorders (CUD) are highly prevalent among adolescents and Young adults. We aim to identify clinically meaningful Latent classes Of Users of cannabis and other illegal substances with distinct problem profiles.

Methods: N=3021 Community subjects aged 14-24 at baseline were followed-up over a period ranging Lip to 10 years. Substance Use (SU) and disorders (SUD) were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Latent class analysis (LCA) 3-MA order was conducted with a subset of N = 1089 Subjects with repeated illegal SU. The variables

entered in the LCA were CU-related problems, CUD, other SUD, and other mental disorders.

Results: Four latent classes were identified: “”Unproblematic CU”" (class 1: 59.2%), “”Primary alcohol use disorders”" (class 2: 14.4%), “”Delinquent cannabisi/alcohol DSM-IV-abuse”" (class 3: 17.9%), “”CUD with multiple problems”" (class 4: 8.5%). Range and level of CU-related problems were highest in classes 3 and 4. Comorbidity with other mental disorders was highest in classes 2 and 4. The probability of alcohol disorders and unmet treatment needs was considerable in classes 2-4.

Conclusion: While the majority of Subjects with repeated illegal SU did not experience notable problems over the 10-year period, a large minority (40.

Maternal serum was analyzed for hsCRP and PlGF Median biomarker

Maternal serum was analyzed for hsCRP and PlGF. Median biomarker values were used as analytic cut-points. We performed chi-square tests of association between biomarkers and PTB, nonparametric tests to compare medians, and logistic regression to determine the odds of PTB associated with biomarker values. Test characteristics of each biomarker were calculated.

Results. aEuro buy Combretastatin A4 integral 56.3%% of the cohort (N == 96) delivered preterm. Median hsCRP (N == 78) was 4.34 mg/L, and median PlGF (N == 86) was 558.25 mg/l. In the setting of inflammation (high hsCRP), women

with low PlGF had a 6.84-fold (95%%CI: 1.57–29.80) increased risk of PTB. In the setting of placental dysfunction (low PlGF), women with high hsCRP had a 5.97-fold (95%%CI: 1.52–23.43) increased risk of PTB.

Conclusions. aEuro integral Our results suggest an interplay between inflammation and placental dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PTB. Analyzing biomarkers that reflect different pathways of PTB may hold promise for identifying patients at greatest risk.”
“Background: Hypothermia is common during hemorrhagic shock. To warm the victims or not has been controversial. This study aims to investigate the effect of warming during the initial time of hemorrhage on body temperature, blood pressure, and survival in rat hemorrhagic shock models.

Methods: Forty anesthetized rats were divided into control group (n = 20) and

warming group (n = 20). The rats of control group were placed on a wooden pad without heating, and the rats of warming Selleck Navitoclax group were placed on a heating pad maintained at 37 degrees C +/- 0.1 degrees C. Blood withdrawal reached 40% of the total blood volume within 60 minutes. Numbers of survival rats, rectal temperature, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded when blood loss reached 0 (T0), 20% (T20), 30% (T30), and 40% (T40) of the total blood volume, respectively.

Results: Rectal temperature and

MAP decrease gradually in Selleckchem 3-MA both groups during hemorrhage. Warming continuously makes the rectal temperature of the warming group (36.68 degrees C +/- 0.63 degrees C) slightly higher than that of the control group (36.17 degrees C +/- 0.69 degrees C) at T0. The rectal temperature and MAP of the warming group are higher than that of the control group at T20, T30, and T40 (p < 0.05). Survival rates of the warming group are higher than that of the control group (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Warming during hemorrhage may prevent exacerbation of hypothermia and hypotension and therefore improve survival.”
“Background: Successful smoking cessation in stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients is important, as smoking contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. The American Heart Association developed Get With The Guidelines (GWTG) to improve compliance with national guideline recommendations for cardiovascular care. Using data from GWTG, we examined trends associated with the smoking-cessation counseling (SCC) performance measure.

This study sought to determine the acceptability and content of t

This study sought to determine the acceptability and content of the booklet to patients.

Patients receiving the educational booklet before discharge from hospital as part of the FASTER study were asked to complete an evaluation, which rated the booklet “”Your Back Operation”" with regard to content, information, usability, etc. using forced and open questions. This assessment was conducted at the same find more time as the initial 6-week post-operative review performed as part of the larger study.

Therefore,

97% of the 117 trial participants who returned their 6-week evaluation and randomised to receive a booklet returned their questionnaire. The booklet was highly rated receiving an overall rating of 7 or more out of 10 from 101/111 (91%), and high ratings for content, readability and information. The booklet’s key messages were clear to the majority of patients; however, many patients highlighted deficiencies with respect to content particularly in relation to wound care and exercise.

Patients valued the booklet and rated its content highly. Many suggested that the booklet be developed further and there was a clear desire for specific exercises to be included even though there is no evidence to support specific exercise

prescription.”
“Pneumonia is a significant medical complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aSAH may initiate immune interactions leading to depressed immunofunction, followed by an increased risk CCI-779 of infection. It remains unclear as to whether

there is a possible association between cerebral metabolism and infections. Clinical and microdialysis data from aSAH patients prospectively included in the CoOperative Study on Brain Injury Depolarisations protocol Alvocidib purchase Berlin were analyzed. Levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate were measured hourly using microdialysis in the cerebral extracellular fluid. The occurrence of pneumonia (defined by positive microbiological cultures) and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) was documented prospectively. Eighteen aSAH patients (52.7 +/- 10.7 years), classified according to the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons in low (I-III, n = 9) and high (IV-V, n = 9) grades, were studied. Eight patients (45 %) experienced DIND, 10 patients (56 %) pneumonia (mean onset day 2.6). Lactate was elevated at day 3 in infected patients (n = 9, median = 6.82 mmol/L) vs. patient without infections (n = 6, median = 2.90 mmol/L, p = 0.036). The optimum cut-off point to predict pneumonia at day 3 was 3.57 mmol/L with a sensitivity of 0.77, and a specificity of 0.66 (area under curve was 0.833 with p = 0.034). Lactate at day 7 was higher in DIND patients compared to no-DIND-patients (p = 0.016). Early elevated lactate correlated with occurrence of bacterial pneumonia, while late elevations with DIND after aSAH.

Follow-up at regular intervals included clinical evaluation, Harv

Follow-up at regular intervals included clinical evaluation, Harvey-Bradshaw index, laboratory tests, colonoscopy and small, bowel radiology when appropriate.

Results: The perioperative mortality was nit. Early postoperative complications were: wound infection (N=4), anastomotic teak (N=1), reoperated, nipple ischemia (N=1) reoperated, enterocutaneous fistula GSK3326595 (N=1). Clinical recurrence in the neoterminal ileum was after 1, 3, 4 and 5 years: 11%, 20%, 23% and 24%. Eleven patients (19%) were reoperated for recurrence in the neoterminal ileum

after median 96 months follow-up. The cumulative reoperation rate was after 1, 3, 4 and 5 years: 4%, 13%, 13% and 16%, respectively.

Conclusion: The low clinical and surgical recurrence rate in the neoterminal ileum may suggest a protective effect of the neosphincter on postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease. This result should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. (c) 2009 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A-to-I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification that converts adenosines to inosines in both coding and noncoding RNA transcripts. It is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine GS-1101 ic50 deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which exist throughout the body but are most prevalent in the central nervous system. Inosines exhibit properties that are most similar to those

of guanosines. As a result, ADAR-mediated editing can post-transcriptionally alter codons, introduce or remove splice sites, or affect the base pairing of the RNA molecule with itself

or with other RNAs. A-to-I editing is a mechanism that regulates and diversifies the transcriptome, but the full biological significance of ADARs is not understood. ADARs are highly conserved find more across vertebrates and are essential for normal development in mammals. Aberrant ADAR activity has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, metabolic diseases, viral infections and autoimmune disorders. ADARs have been shown to contribute to disease pathologies by editing of glutamate receptors, editing of serotonin receptors, mutations in ADAR genes, and by other mechanisms, including recently identified regulatory roles in microRNA processing. Advances in research into many of these diseases may depend on an improved understanding of the biological functions of ADARs. Here, we review recent studies investigating connections between ADAR-mediated RNA editing and human diseases.”
“OBJECTIVE: To determine whether avoiding intra-abdominal irrigation at cesarean delivery will decrease rates of intraoperative and postoperative gastrointestinal disturbance without increasing postoperative morbidity.

METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing cesarean delivery. Patients were randomized to irrigation after closure of the hysterotomy compared with no irrigation.