The results showed that Al treatment did not affect B content of

The results showed that Al treatment did not affect B content of roots (B content of Al-treated and non-treated plants were identical), while B treatment, particularly in higher concentrations, decreased Al content of roots compared with the control plants. In addition, the highest B concentration prevented the inhibitory effect of Al on the root length of plants. High concentrations

of B also resulted in the decrease of enzyme activities involved in phenolic compounds (i.e., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase), decrease of lignin content and wall-bound phenols under Al stress, thereby ameliorating Al toxicity. The results suggest that the requirement of flax plants for B under Al stress conditions is higher than that required for growth in normal conditions without Al. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Viruses are the most Citarinostat price common causes of respiratory tract Metabolism inhibitor infections in children. The implementation of rapid virology assays can identify the most common pathogens involved.

This study was undertaken on Iranian children less than 6 years old with respiratory infection.

Methods: A total of 202 specimens were tested for the presence of 9 respiratory viruses by developing 3 multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and 1 uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

Results: Viral pathogens were detected in 92 samples (45.5%) with 5.4% having dual infections. Overall, respiratory syncytial virus was the most frequently identified virus (16.8%), followed by adenovirus (14.4%), influenza A virus (4.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (4.4%), parainfluenza virus-1 (2.9%), and both influenza B virus and hMPV (0.49).

Conclusions: Respiratory tract infection is a frequent cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and a common reason for admission in acute care hospitals and outpatients visits. Appropriate diagnostic testing is important for specific

diagnosis at an early stage of the illness because of the similarity in clinical presentation PFTα of patients with different viral infections caused by several respiratory pathogens.”
“Interplay of discharge and gas flow in the atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated with three different discharge modes [N. Jiang, A. L. Ji, and Z. X. Cao, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013308 (2009); N. Jiang, A. L. Ji, and Z. X. Cao, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033302 (2010)] has been investigated by simultaneous photographing of both plasma plumes and gas flows in the ambient, with the former being visualized by using an optical schlieren system. Gas flow gains a forward momentum from discharge except for the case of overflow jets at smaller applied voltages. Larger applied voltage implies an elongated plasma jet only for single-electrode mode; for dielectric barrier discharge jet the plume length maximizes at a properly applied voltage.

Our data suggest that endoplasmic reticulum

Our data suggest that endoplasmic reticulum BI 6727 mw stress, likely mediated by NO, contributes to the AF cell apoptosis induced by cyclic stretch in addition to the mitochondrial pathway. These findings could be helpful to understand the mechanism of disc cell apoptosis, the root cause

of IVD degeneration.”
“The reaction of 3,4,6-triisopropyl-1,2-benzoquinone with phenylacetylene and phosphorus trichloride gave 2,6-dichloro-5,7,8-triisopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2 lambda(5)-benzoxaphosphinine 2-oxide whose structure was determined by X-ray analysis.”
“Vinegar is one of the most commonly used sauces in Asia. However, cheap synthetic acetic acid or molasses spirit vinegar is widely used to adulterate pure fermented products. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate pure rice vinegar by three model of rice vinegar authentication test. According to the analysis of SNIF-NMR method, the (D/H)(CH3) values for rice vinegar, molasses spirit vinegar, and synthetic vinegar are

98.50, 108.46 and 131.58 ppm. The results of (D/H)(CH3) showed that there are significant differences for different materials (p < 0.05). In the rice vinegar authentication model test, the results showed that (D/H)(CH3) increases with the addition of molasses spirit vinegar or synthetic vinegar, and that there is a good linear correlation (R-2 > 0.97). According to these results, we consider the SNIF-NMR method to be an effective way of determining the THZ1 manufacturer click here degree of adulteration in fermented rice vinegar. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) experience impaired quality of life (QoL) and psychological distress. Catheter ablation of AF can markedly improve QoL. However, the effect of catheter ablation of AF on psychological status is unknown. Hypothesis: Depression, anxiety, and QoL improve after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF. Methods: A total of 166 consecutive

patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF were examined. Eighty-two patients (55 men, mean age 55.9 +/- 6.1 y) underwent catheter ablation and 84 patients (58 men, mean age 57.2 +/- 5.4 years) received antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy. The Self-Rating Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item Short-Form questionnaires were completed by these patients at baseline, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of follow-up. Results in the ablation group were compared with those of the AAD group. Results: In the ablation group, 42.7% of patients showed symptoms of depression and 37.8% showed symptoms of anxiety, which were similar to those in the AAD group. Both groups similarly displayed reduced physical and mental QoL.

Thus, this review will highlight the most important results with

Thus, this review will highlight the most important results with a focus on resuscitated, clinically relevant experimental models and, if available, human studies.

Recent findings

There is ample evidence that nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and H(2)S may exert cytoprotective effects in shock states due to their vasomotor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as their potential to induce a hibernation-like metabolic state called ‘suspended animation’ resulting from inhibition of cytochrome-c-oxidase. It must be emphasized, however, that the three molecules may also be cytotoxic, not only because of their inhibition of cellular respiration but also because of their marked

pro-inflammatory effects.

Summary

It see more is still a matter of debate whether manipulating nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, or H(2)S tissue concentrations, either by using the inhaled gas itself or by administering donor molecules or inhibitors

of their endogenous production, is a useful therapeutic approach to improve microcirculatory blood flow, tissue oxygenation, and cellular respiration. This is mainly due to their ‘friend and foe character’ documented in various experimental models, but also to the paucity Napabucasin inhibitor of data from long-term, resuscitated large animal experiments that fulfil the criteria of clinically relevant models.”
“Starch within the endosperm of most species of the Triticeae has a unique bimodal granule morphology comprising large lenticular A-type VS-6063 manufacturer granules and smaller near-spherical B-type granules. However, a few wild wheat species (Aegilops) are known to lack B-granules. Ae. peregrina and a synthetic tetraploid Aegilops with the same genome composition (SU) were found to differ in B-granule number. The synthetic tetraploid had normal A- and B-type starch granules whilst Ae. peregrina had only A-granules because the B-granules failed to initiate. A population segregating for B-granule number was generated by crossing these two accessions and was used to study the genetic basis of B-granule initiation. A combination of Bulked Segregant Analysis and QTL mapping identified a major QTL located

on the short arm of chromosome 4S that accounted for 44.4% of the phenotypic variation. The lack of B-granules in polyploid Aegilops with diverse genomes suggests that the B-granule locus has been lost several times independently during the evolution of the Triticeae. It is proposed that the B-granule locus is susceptible to silencing during polyploidization and a model is presented to explain the observed data based on the assumption that the initiation of B-granules is controlled by a single major locus per haploid genome.”
“Study Design. A primary leiomyosarcoma located on the left side of the C2 is reported. Left-sided partial spondylectomy and anterior reconstruction with posterior stabilization was performed by a two-staged operation.

Objective.

Results: 78 patients had 90 leads implanted: 25 via TV route and

Results: 78 patients had 90 leads implanted: 25 via TV route and 65 via Epi route. Median follow-up was 1.6 years (TV) and 3.6 years (Epi). TV leads were implanted CAL-101 in vivo in older patients (23.1 vs 9.3 years, P < 0.001) and at longer intervals after Fontan (15.2 vs 4.9 years, P < 0.001). Pacing indication for most TV leads was SND, while Epi leads were also indicated for atrioventricular block. Acute complication rates were similar (8% TV vs 19% Epi, P = 0.23), but median hospital stay was shorter for TV (2 vs 5 days, P = 0.03). Thrombus was observed in five patients (two in TV; three in Epi), but no thromboembolic events were observed. Mean lead

survival was similar (TV 9.9 vs Epi 7.8 years, P = NS). Energy threshold was lower at implant for TV leads (0.9 vs 2.2 mu J, P = 0.049), but similar at follow-up (1.2 vs 2.6 mu J, P = 0.35). Atrial sensing was unchanged over time for TV (2.2 to 2.1 mV, P = NS), but decreased for Epi (3.3 to 2.5 mV, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Compared to epicardial leads, transvenous atrial pacing leads may be placed in Fontan patients with lower procedural morbidity and equivalent expectation of lead performance and

longevity.

(PACE 2009; 32:779-785).”
“Background: The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs and to perform a meta-analysis to address three questions: LY2835219 First, what is the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs? Second, is there evidence for a “”best”"

program? Third, what is the quality of the current literature on ACL injury prevention?

Methods: We conducted a systematic review with use of the online PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Search terms were anterior cruciate ligament, knee, injury, prevention, and control. Data on study design and clinical outcomes were extracted independently in triplicate. After assessment of between-study heterogeneity, DerSimonian-Laird random-effect models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios and risk differences. The risk difference was used to estimate the number needed to treat (the number of individuals PI3K inhibitor who would need to be treated to avoid one ACL tear).

Results: The pooled risk ratio was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.72), reflecting a significant reduction in the risk of ACL rupture in the prevention group (p = 0.003). The number needed to treat ranged from five to 187 in the individual studies. Stratified by sex, the pooled risk ratio was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.89) for female athletes and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.28) for male athletes.

Conclusions: Our study indicated strong evidence in support of a significant effect of ACL injury prevention programs.

Maximum wall thickness and luminal area were measured with gadoli

Maximum wall thickness and luminal area were measured with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in

both common carotid arteries (CCAs) and in one internal carotid artery (ICA) 2 mm above the flow divider. Complete data were available for 1064 ICAs and 3348 CCAs. The association of maximum wall thickness with lumen area was evaluated with linear regression, and adjustments were made for participant age, sex, race, height, BEZ235 research buy and height squared.

Results: In the ICA, lumen area was relatively constant across patients with a wall thickness of 1.38 mm or less. In patients with a wall thickness of more than 1.38 mm, however, lumen area decreased linearly as wall thickness increased. Wall area represented a median of 61.9% of the area circumscribed by the vessel at a maximum wall thickness of 1.50 mm +/- 0.05 (standard deviation) and 75.4% at a maximum wall thickness of 4.0 mm +/- 0.10. In the CCA, lumen area was preserved across wall thicknesses less than 2.06 mm, representing 99% of vessels.

Conclusion: Atherosclerotic thickening in the ICA appears to be accommodated for vessels with a maximum wall thickness of less than 1.5 mm. Beyond this threshold, greater thickness is associated with a smaller lumen. The CCA appears to accommodate a wall thickness of less than

2.0 mm. These estimates indicate that the carotid arteries are able to compensate for a greater degree of thickening than GSK2118436 manufacturer are the coronary arteries. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY/PRINCIPLES: Analysis of changes in the behaviour of wearing protective equipment by alpine skiers and snowboarders after injury, performed at a level I trauma centre in Switzerland.

METHODS: We present a study, using a standardised questionnaire, assessing behaviour on ski slopes by adult patients admitted between Oct 2007 and April 2008. Patients were re-interviewed after the 2008/2009 season. McNemar tests were used to analyse

differences in protective clothing wearing rates between the two seasons. Multiple logistic regression with age, gender and injury severity score (ISS) as predictors, was used to compare findings in those who started wearing protective equipment and those who did not.

RESULTS: A total of 104/132 patients check details from the 2007/2008 season were questioned about wearing protective equipment in 2008/2009. 20 patients could not be reassessed (7 declined, 13 had abandoned winter sports). A total of 84 patients were reassessed (61 alpine skiers and 23 snowboarders). The median age of participants was 39 years and 70.2% were male. Helmet and back protector wearing rates increased from 40.5% to 78.6% (p <0.001) and from 14.3% to 23.8% (p = 0.021), respectively. Snowboarders more than doubled their helmet wearing rate (39.1% to 82.6%, p = 0.002). Skiers showed a trend towards doubling their back protector wearing rate (6.6% to 14.8%, p = 0.063). Younger skiers started wearing back protectors more often than older skiers.

In keeping with previous reports, this single-centre experience d

In keeping with previous reports, this single-centre experience demonstrates that patients undergoing

TAVI have higher rates of pacemaker implantation than those following SAVR. However, pacing indication in the short-to-medium term may not persist for all paced patients post-TAVI and -SAVR with the suggestion that a significant proportion recover atrioventricular conduction, which tended to be greatest in TAVI paced patients.”
“Obesity is a major epidemic of our time and is associated with diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although weight loss drugs, when accompanied by diet and exercise, could be a very helpful medical tool in treating obese or overweight buy BVD-523 patients, their see more usefulness has been questioned due to the complexity of this type of medication, which regards a plethora of issues such as efficacy and safety of the drug and also risks and benefits among different patients. In general, obesity drugs that target peripheral pathophysiological

mechanisms can be divided into two main categories. The first category includes anti-obesity agents able to reduce or limit energy absorption, such as pancreatic lipase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors. The second category consists of a heterogeneous group of compounds aiming to decrease fat mass by increasing energy expenditure or by redistributing adipose tissue. Angiogenesis inhibitors, beta-3 receptor agonists, sirtuin-I activators, diazoxide and other molecules belong to this group. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists consist the third category of peripheral anti-obesity agents discussed therein.

This review aims to provide a general overview of the molecules and substances that are already or could potentially be used as peripheral anti-obesity drugs, the molecular mechanisms by which they act, as well as their current stage of development, production and/or availability.”
“OSA MLN4924 supplier is increasingly recognized as a major health problem in developed

countries. Obesity is the most common risk factor in OSA and hence, the prevalence of OSA is undoubtedly rising given the epidemic of obesity. Recent data also suggest that OSA is highly associated with the metabolic syndrome, and it is postulated that OSA contributes to cardiometabolic dysfunction, and subsequently vasculopathy. Current evidence regarding the magnitude of impact on ultimate cardiovascular morbidity or mortality attributable to OSA-induced metabolic dysregulation is scarce. Given the known pathophysiological triggers of intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation in OSA, the potential mechanisms of OSA-obesity-metabolic syndrome interaction involve sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, inflammation and neurohumoral changes.

All rights reserved Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:132-143″
“Hypo

All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:132-143″
“Hypogonadism and subfertility can be frequently associated to obesity. These endocrine alterations may have consequences in the health and quality of life of obese men since they may result in impaired fertility and poor

sexual life. As many clinical reports suggest, weight loss can ameliorate hypogonadism and, more generally, alterations in sex hormones. This effect is evident even when weight loss is induced by bariatric surgery. The evidence that hypogonadism in morbidly obese patients can regress after bariatric surgery should lead us to selleck compound consider it as a modifiable comorbidity associated to obesity. This would have as a consequence that obese male patients with symptomatic hypogonadism

could be candidates for bariatric surgery even with a BMI < 40 kg/m(2). Controlled clinical trials, involving obese hypogonadal males, should be encouraged.”
“Claudication is a typical symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Differential diagnosis of PAD and LSS is often difficult due to the subjective natures of symptoms and atypical signs. The authors aimed to determine the usefulness of ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement for the differential diagnosis of PAD and LSS when the etiology of claudication is uncertain.

Forty-two consecutive patients who had been referred by spine surgeons to a lower extremity vascular surgeon for atypical MDV3100 clinical trial claudication were retrospectively analyzed. Atypical claudication JQ1 was defined as claudication not caused by PAD, as determined by clinical manifestations,

or by LSS, as determined by MR imaging. A final diagnosis of PAD was established by CT angiography (CTA) and of LSS by excluding PAD. Diagnostic validity of ABI for PAD in atypical presentation was assessed.

Sixty-two legs of 42 atypical claudication patients were analyzed. Mean patient age was 65.8 +/- A 8.2 years (38-85) and 29 (69.0%) had diabetes mellitus. Mean ABI was 0.73 +/- A 0.14 (0.53-0.94) in the PAD group and 0.92 +/- A 0.18 (0.52-1.10) in the LSS group (P < 0.001). Of the 33 legs with a low ABI (ABI < 0.9), 29 legs were diagnosed as true positives for PAD by CTA and 4 were false positives, and of the 29 legs with a high ABI, 5 were false negatives and 24 were true negatives. The sensitivity and specificity of ABI for the diagnosis of PAD in patients with atypical claudication were 85.3 and 85.7%, respectively, and its positive and negative predictive values were 87.9 and 82.8%.

ABI is a recommended screening test for the differential diagnosis of lower leg claudication when clinical symptoms are atypical.”
“We evaluated the safety and efficacy of long-term administration of dexmedetomidine in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Primary endpoint was the incidence of hypotension, hypertension, and bradycardia.

Follow-up was done every 6-12 months, complications recorded and

Follow-up was done every 6-12 months, complications recorded and managed appropriately.

Results: All the patients were males. The mean age at diagnosis of a peripheral aneurysm was 41.0 +/- 9 years. There were 17 (53%) femoral, 8 (25%) popliteal, two carotid, two external iliac,

two brachial and one internal iliac aneurysms. Fourteen (61%) patients had a single peripheral aneurysm while nine had two. Surgery was performed for all initially presenting 23 aneurysms. Six patients with multiple peripheral aneurysms had surgery for their second asymptomatic aneurysm. The mean follow-up period was 84 +/- 62 months. Of 29 aneurysms operated on, 7 (24%) anastomotic pseudo-aneurysms and 11 (38%) graft occlusions developed. Five (22%) patients underwent major lower extremity amputations. Six (26%) mortalities were recorded.

Conclusion: find more Surgery for peripheral aneurysms in BD is warranted in many instances. Results of operation can be improved by prolonged monitoring. However, despite all efforts, peripheral aneurysm involvement in BD worsens the prognosis. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The foot and mouth

disease virus (FMDV) is an RNA virus composed of single stranded positive sense RNA. FMDV has been known to infect cloven-hoofed animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep. FMDV is rapidly spreading outward PI3K inhibitor to neighboring regions, often leading to a high mortality rate. Thus, early diagnosis of FMDV is critical

to suppress propagation of FMDV and minimize economic losses. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of polyclonal and six monoclonal antibodies against VP1 through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. These VP1 antibodies will be useful as tools to detect serotypes A and O of FMDVs for diagnostic usage.”
“Magnetic resonance Panobinostat cost imaging (MRI) within FDA guidelines for the MRI-conditional pacemaker precludes placing the heart at the center of the magnet’s bore. This in effect appears to preclude cardiovascular MR. In this manuscript, we describe a protocol for cardiovascular MR of patients with a Revo pacemaker system while operating within FDA guidelines, and the first US case of cardiovascular MR in a patient with a Revo MRI-conditional pacing system despite position constraints.”
“In order to exploit the byproduct of Forsythia suspense, its seed oil was first studied for the extraction, physicochemical property and antioxidant activity. The green and effective enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing under microwave irradiation was applied to obtain the oil. The optimal oil yield of 21.62 +/- 0.51% (dry weight of F. suspense seed basis) was achieved by the treatment of 1.5% (w/w) enzyme cocktail (cellulase/pectinase/proteinase = 1/1/1, w/w/w) under 90 min. The fatty acid composition of FSSO exhibited the predominance of linoleic acid (72.96%) along with oleic acid (18.66%) and palmitic acid (5.

A series of experiments was carried out using ordinary fluorescen

A series of experiments was carried out using ordinary fluorescent lamps to study the influence of light irradiation on growth and PTOX accumulation in Linum album cell cultures by varying the type of light and periods of exposure. The biosynthesis of PTOX was variably affected according to the quality of light. The enhancing effects of red light on PTOX production was correlated with increased activities of the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and the expression of some key genes involved in the biosynthesis of this compound,

including the PAL gene Selleckchem CCI-779 itself and the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) gene. Blue light was found to have similar effects but mainly on the expression level of CCR and pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase (PLR) genes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“P>Patterns of invasive fungal infections are changing in many ways. Although yeast infections appear to have reached a stable incidence, the number of infections as a result of Aspergillus species appears to be increasing. Especially for mould infection, the diagnosis remains difficult and the detection and identification of clinically relevant isolates to the species level requires new validated techniques. Diagnostic tests are becoming more accurate, with biological markers such as PCR, galactomannan and

1,3 beta-d-glucan undergoing clinical

validation. 5-Fluoracil ic50 SN-38 order This is of importance because an early diagnosis is associated with increased survival. Correct diagnosis and in vitro susceptibility testing are becoming imperative for guidance of therapy in the context of changing epidemiology and the emergence of acquired resistance to antifungal drugs, as is insight into host factors that increase susceptibility to invasive mould infection and into the risks associated with new treatment modalities of underlying diseases. Despite improvements in the survival rates of patients with invasive fungal infection in recent years, continued research is required to meet the challenges associated with changes in epidemiology and resistance development.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (1) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively.

This muscle was dissected only from the oral mucosa while kept at

This muscle was dissected only from the oral mucosa while kept attached to the nasal one as a musculo-nasomucosal unit. This unit was completely detached from the

bony margin of the hard palate and then medially rotated and retropositioned Torin 2 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor in a typical C-shape mobile sling. Evaluations included suture line assessment and fistula development, and following the child’s need for speech therapy. There were no intraoperative complications. Definite anterior fistulae with nasal air and foot leakage were observed in 2 cases. Four cases had postoperative velopharyngeal incompetence with a need for speech therapy. Tension-free closure, lower risk of fistula, good restoration IPI145 of velopharyngeal functions, ability to be performed on all cleft types, ability to provide a good intraoperative exposure, and being a single stage seem to be the most important advantages of this unpublished technique.”
“Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress resulting from tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion (IR) period in arthroscopic knee surgery.

Methods: Forty-five patients

who had arthroscopic knee surgery for meniscal and chondral lesions and for pathologic medial plica were included in this study. They were assigned to the following treatment Buparlisib groups: control (group C; n = 15), IPC (group P; n = 15), and NAC (group N; n = 15). Subjects in the control group underwent routine surgical procedures. Subjects in the preconditioning group were subjected to temporary ischemia, with tourniquet performed by three compression cycles of 5 minutes followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion just before the application

of tourniquet inflation. Subjects in the NAC group received 10 mg/kg NAC dissolved in 100 mL 0.9% normal saline intravenously 30 minutes before tourniquet inflation. An hour before the tourniquet was applied (preischemia) and 2 hours after tourniquet was removed (reperfusion), blood samples (to test for metabolites) were obtained. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured in all serum samples.

Results were compared between preischemia and reperfusion in three groups. Results: MDA in the control group was found to be increased significantly compared with preischemia, whereas MDA in IPC and NAC groups did not change insignificantly. SOD and GSH activities in the control group were found to be increased significantly, whereas SOD and GSH activities in IPC and NAC groups did not change significantly after reperfusion.