“Empathy is a longstanding issue in economics, especially for welfare economics, but one which has faded from the scene in recent years. However, with the rise of neuroeconomics, there is now a renewed interest in this subject. Some economists have even gone so far as to suggest that neuroscientific experiments reveal heterogeneous empathy levels across individuals. If this MK-1775 inhibitor were the case, this would be in line with economists’ usual assumption of stable and given preferences and would greatly facilitate the
study of prosocial behaviour with which empathy is often associated. After reviewing some neuroscientific psychological and neuroeconomic evidence on empathy, we will, however, criticize the notion of a given empathy distribution in the population by referring to recent experiments on a public goods game that suggest that, on the contrary, the degree of empathy that individuals exhibit is very much dependent on context and social interaction.”
“Background: A high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection has been detected in psychiatric patients, particularly in schizophrenia cases.
Methods: In the present study 98 patients suffering from schizophrenia
(58 inpatients and 40 first-episode patients) and 96 control patients (50 healthy volunteers and 46 with a depressive disorder) were examined for the presence of both IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We applied the Bradford Hill criteria to identify the weight of causal inference.
Results: PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 The positivity rate of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies among individuals with schizophrenia (57.1%) was significantly higher than in healthy controls (29.2%). There were no associations between immune
status ratio (ISR) values and the risk of schizophrenia. The weight of evidence approach using the Bradford Hill criteria revealed a 92% probability of a causal association.
Conclusion: Our results show that exposure to T. gondii may lead to schizophrenia. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Drug abuse is a serious risk factor for the incidence and severity of multiple psychiatric illnesses. Understanding the neurobiological consequences click here of repeated exposure to abused drugs can help to inform how those risks are manifested in terms of specific neurochemical mechanisms and brain networks. This review examines selective studies in non-human primates that employed a cocaine self-administration model. Neurochemical consequences of chronic exposure appear to differ from observations in rodent studies. Whereas chronic intermittent exposure in the rodent is usually associated with a dose-dependent increase in dopaminergic response to a cocaine challenge, in the rhesus monkey, high cumulative exposure was not observed to cause a sensitized dopamine response. These non-human primate observations are concordant with clinical findings in human users.