4% to 57 4% to 79 4% (P < 01 and P = 01) CONCLUSIONS: Pe

4% to 57.4% to 79.4% (P < .01 and P = .01).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Pediatric E. coli isolates differ significantly in antimicrobial susceptibility at our institution, selleck chemical particularly to frequently administered oral antibiotics. Knowledge of pediatric-specific data altered empirical antibiotic choices in case vignettes. Care of pediatric patients could be improved with use of a pediatric-specific

antibiogram. Pediatrics 2012;130:e615-e622″
“Spherulitic patterns usually form in the single process of crystallization in polymer blends. But when phase separation intervenes under deep quench, the radial growth of the initial spherulitic patterns tends to invert into concentric alternating crystalline-/amorphous-rich ring structures. Within crystalline-rich regions, lateral lamellae orient in the tangential direction rather than in the usual radial direction. We demonstrate the determining factor for this first observed phenomenon is the concentration HKI-272 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor deviation enhanced phase separation dynamics at the growth interface of crystals.”
“Monitoring quantity and quality data of a 3-yr (2006-2009) survey in the lower reach of Nestos river are presented. For the purposes of this study, monitoring was taking place at six sites along the river course. Discharge measurements were made at four stations. Physicochemical parameters

(i.e., electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature) were measured in situ while water quality samples were collected on a bi-weekly basis at all six stations along the river. Water samples for chemical analyses were collected for the determination of total phosphorus, orthophosphate, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chlorophyll-a, CB-839 clinical trial TSS, alkalinity, sulfuric and chloride anions, major cations (Na(+), K(+), Mg(+), Ca(+)) and metals. Two autographic telemetric stations also provided continuous stage

and water quality data at two of the sites. ANOVA and t-test statistical analysis were used for the interpretation of the collected data. Nutrient concentrations were found within acceptable limits, while bicarbonates were the dominant ions. No significant seasonal and spatial variations were observed, suggesting little impact from human activities on the part of river basin under investigation.”
“Hemoglobin variability (Hb-var) in patients with chronic kidney disease has been stipulated to be a result of exogenous treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and has been related to mortality in dialysis patients. We hypothesized the existence of Hb-var independent of ESA administration and compared it to that in healthy adults using data from the Scripps-Kaiser and NHANES III databases. We studied the Hb-var in 1571 peritoneal dialysis patients which included 116 patients not requiring treatment with erythropoietin.

Hence, the anion chemosensors operate by a deprotonation mechanis

Hence, the anion chemosensors operate by a deprotonation mechanism of the central N-H proton rather than by hydrogen bonding as is

often reported.”
“gamma-Secretase is a distinct proteolytic complex required for the activation of many transmembrane proteins. The cleavage of substrates by gamma-secretase plays diverse biological roles in producing essential products for the organism. More than 90 transmembrane proteins have been reported to be substrates of gamma-secretase. Two of the most widely known and studied of these substrates are the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the Notch receptor, which are precursors for the generation of amyloid-beta (A beta) and the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), respectively. The wide spectrum of gamma-secretase substrates has made analyses of the pathology of gamma-secretase-related diseases and underlying mechanisms challenging. Inflammation is an important aspect of RG-7112 mouse disease pathology that requires an in-depth analysis. gamma-Secretase may contribute to disease development or progression by directly increasing and regulating production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This review summarizes recent evidence for a role of gamma-secretase

in inflammatory diseases, and discusses the potential use of gamma-secretase inhibitors as an effective future treatment option. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Objectives: Repeated checking leads to a shift from perceptual to semantic P005091 in vivo level of information processing, increasing an individual’s doubt in their memory. Cognitive restructuring (CR) targeting content of OCD cognitions has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of OCD. Detached mindfulness (DM) is a novel metacognitive intervention that aims to suspend conceptual processing, thereby providing individuals with more objective meta-awareness, helping GSI-IX them to disengage from biased thinking. The present study compared the effects of DM and CR in reducing the doubt-inducing effect of compulsive checking on memory and checking behaviours. Methods: Sixty-five undergraduates were randomly assigned into CR, DM and control groups. Participants completed

a repeated checking task found previously to produce OCD-like effects of memory distrust and an increased urge to check. Following this, participants received either a brief CT or brief DM intervention, or an unrelated control task. Participants were provided with an opportunity to check their final responses. Results: Compared to the control group, DM and CR interventions were comparable and significantly more effective in reducing rechecking, while DM had additional benefits in ameliorating effects of reduced memory distrust. Limitations: Results were based on non-clinical participants, and utilised low intensity CR and DM interventions. Conclusions: Results provide initial support for the use of CR and DM in reducing the effect of repeated checking. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Overexpression of AGK sustained constitutive JAK2/STAT3 activatio

Overexpression of AGK sustained constitutive JAK2/STAT3 activation, consequently promoting the cancer stem cell population and augmenting the tumorigenicity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells both in vivo and in vitro.

Furthermore, AGK levels significantly correlated with increased STAT3 phosphorylation, poorer disease-free survival, and shorter overall survival in primary ESCC. More importantly, AGK expression was significantly correlated with JAK2/STAT3 hyperactivation in ESCC, as well as in lung and breast cancer. These findings uncover a mechanism for constitutive activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in solid tumors and may represent a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.”
“Anastomotic leakage is the most severe complication after colorectal surgery and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify a predictive score for postoperative leakage after colorectal cancer surgery and to evaluate KU 55933 its usefulness LDC000067 concentration in assessing various protective measures.\n\nA total of 159 patients

were divided into test (79 patients) and validation (40 patients) groups in order to identify the risk factors and construct the predictive score. The remaining 40 patients (intervention group) were prospectively evaluated with the application of protective measures guided by risk stratification according to the predictive score.\n\nA total of 23 of 159 (14.5 %) patients had anastomotic leakage, with 7 of 23 (30.4 %) of them needing reoperation. 11 of 159 (6.9 %) patients A-1210477 mw died, with 10 (6.3 %) deaths directly associated with anastomotic leakage. The rate of

leakage in the test and validation groups (nonintervention group) was 22 of 119 (18.5 %), while the rate of leakage in the intervention group was 3 of 40 (7.5 %). The odds ratio for anastomotic leakage in the intervention group was 0.23 compared to the nonintervention group, with a relative risk reduction of 73 % for unfavorable event. The number needed to treat was 8 patients. There were also 10 of 119 (8.4 %) deaths in the nonintervention group compared to 1 of 40 (2.5 %) in the intervention group (Fisher’s test; p = 0.18).\n\nOur simple predictive score may be a valuable decision making tool that can help surgeons reliably identify patients at high risk for postoperative anastomotic leakage and apply guided intraoperative protective measures.”
“The Tanypodinae from Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada are listed and taxonomic and ecological notes given. The males of Paramerina fragilis (Walley) and Helopelopia pilicaudata (Walley), and the immatures of Telopelopia okoboji (Walley) are redescribed. The larvae of cf. Conchapelopia currani (Walley) and cf. Helopelopia pilicaudata are described.”
“An eight-month-old apathic cat was referred to the Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals of the Ghent University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Merelbeke, Belgium. The cat had a severe case of non-regenerative anemia with a hematocrit of only 2.9%.

There was no difference in the meat centesimal composition betwee

There was no difference in the meat centesimal composition between genetic groups. Meat from Bonsmara, 1/2 Bonsmara + 1/2 Nellore and 1/2 Bonsmara + 1/4 Red Angus + 1/4 Nellore presented greater tenderness than that from Tabapua steers. The longissimus fat acid profile did not differ between the genetic groups studied. Meat from Bonsmara and crossbred 1/2 Bonsmara + 1/2 Nellore and 1/2 Bonsmara + 1/4 Red Angus + 1/4 Nellore animals presented greater quality than that from Tabapua steers.”
“Objective: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a minimally invasive alternative to selleck compound open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RP), and is reported to offer equivalent oncologic

outcomes while reducing perioperative morbidity. However, the technique of extirpation can differ based on the usage of thermal energy and coagulation during RARP, which may alter the risk of finding a positive surgical margin (PSM) as cautery may destroy residual

cancer cells. We sought to evaluate whether the method of surgery (RP vs RARP) affects the rate of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with PSMs. Materials & Methods: The Columbia University Urologic Oncology Database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent RP and RARP from 2000 to 2010 and had a PSM on final pathology. BCR PKC inhibitor was defined as a postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 0.2ng/mL. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was utilized to calculate BCR rates based on the method of surgery. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine if the method of surgery was associated with BCR. Results: We identified

3267 patients who underwent prostatectomy, of which 910 (28%) had a PSM. Of those with a PSM, 337 patients had available follow-up data, including 229 who underwent RP (68%) and 108 who underwent RARP (32%). At a mean follow-up time of 37 months for the RP group, 103 (46%) patients demonstrated BCR; at a mean follow-up time of 44 months for the RARP group, 62 (57%) patients had a BCR (p=0.140). Two-year BCR-free rates for RP vs RARP were 65% and 49%, respectively (log-rank p smaller than 0.001). However, after controlling for age, PSA, grade, and year of surgery, the surgical method was not significantly associated with increased risk of BCR (HR 1.25; p=0.29). Conclusion: AL3818 supplier Our results confirm the noninferiority of RARP to RP with regard to patients with PSMs. As such, all patients with a PSM at RP are at high risk for BCR and should be followed in the same manner regardless of the surgical approach.”
“This study comparatively evaluates the modelling efficiency of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Twenty-nine biohydrogen fermentation batches were carried out to generate the experimental data. The input parameters consisted of a concentration of molasses (50-150 g/l), pH (4-8), temperature (35-40 A degrees C) and inoculum concentration (10-50 %). The obtained data were used to develop the RSM and ANN models.

Treatment for this disease is still under investigation Mucuna p

Treatment for this disease is still under investigation. Mucuna pruriens (L.), is a traditional herbal medicine, used in India since 1500 B.C., as a neuroprotective agent. In this present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of aqueous extract of M. pruriens (Mp) seed in Parkinsonian mouse model developed by chronic exposure to paraquat (PQ). Results of our study revealed that the nigrostriatal

portion of Parkinsonian mouse brain showed significantly increased levels of nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced levels of catalase compared to the control. BTSA1 In the Parkinsonian mice hanging time was decreased, whereas narrow beam walk time and foot printing errors were increased.\n\nTreatment with aqueous seed extract of Mp significantly increased the catalase activity and decreased the MDA and nitrite level, compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Mp treatment also improved the behavioral R788 purchase abnormalities. It increased hanging time, whereas it decreased narrow beam walk time and foot printing error compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain.\n\nFurthermore, we observed a significant reduction

in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum region of the brain, after treatment with PQ which was considerably restored by the use of Mp seed extract. Our result suggested that Mp seed extract treatment significantly reduced the PQ induced neurotoxicity as evident by decrease in oxidative damage, physiological abnormalities and immunohistochemical changes in the Parkinsonian mouse. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Though recent reports have indicated a higher prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in laboratory personnel WZB117 datasheet than in other healthcare workers, these studies included only a limited number of laboratory personnel. Methods: We have thus focused on the laboratory personnel, who had a high level of exposure to specimens from patients with TB. We recruited 173 laboratory personnel and performed QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST). Results: QFT-G was positive in 21.4% of the enrolled laboratory personnel, and TST was positive

in 33.3%. The agreement between the two tests was fair (kappa = 0.234). In multivariate analyses, household contact with TBpatients (P = 0.013), the laboratory sections of microbiology (P = 0.045) and chemistry/ immunology (P = 0.014) were shown to be significantly associated with positive QFT-G results. Conclusion: Our data show a high prevalence of TST and QFT-G positivity in laboratory personnel and emphasize the importance of LTBI screening for laboratory personnel. In BCG-vaccinated populations with an intermediate incidence setting, QFT-G seems to be superior to TST as a screening tool for the detection of LTBI. Further study, including results of follow-up tests will be helpful for confirmation of our findings. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 25: 382-388, 2011.

001) However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks)

001). However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks) during VF (P<0.05) and Si pacing (P<0.05). TH resulted in earlier onset of APD alternans (P<0.001), which was predominantly SDA (P<0.05), and increased pacing-induced VF episodes (P<0.05). TH also decreased CV, shortened wavelength, and enhanced APD dispersion and the spatial heterogeneity of CV restitution.\n\nConclusions: TH (30 degrees C) increased the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF by (1) facilitating wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, and (2) enhancing proarrhythmic electrophysiological parameters, including promoting

earlier onset of APD alternans (predominantly SDA) during this website S1 pacing. (Circ J 2009; 73: 2214-2222)”
“Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of

morbidity selleck inhibitor and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN (TM)). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor

cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at Rabusertib the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.”
“Objective: We describe the short-term results of the patients who underwent transapical treatment of a paravalvular leak (PVL) in our centre. Background: Increasing experience with transapical aortic valve implantation has inspired us to explore this approach for prosthetic paravalvular leak reduction in high risk patients.

“Background: Olfaction has been demonstrated to have a gre

“Background: Olfaction has been demonstrated to have a great impact on patients’ lives. Transsphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery is associated with potentially significant damage to olfactory tissues, but to date this issue has been only poorly documented in the literature.\n\nStudy Design: Prospective cohort study comparing olfactory outcomes pre- and postpituitary surgery.\n\nMethod: Patients were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) preoperatively and again at 6 months postoperatively. The endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery was carried out using a full middle

turbinate MEK inhibitor preservation protocol. A Hadad-Bassagasteguy (HB) vascularized septal flap was raised in each case. Secondary outcomes included Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores (LKES) and patient self-report of olfactory disturbance.

The results were analysed using a paired t-tests.\n\nResults: Seventeen patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Mean preoperative UPSIT value was 37.2 (normosmia), and mean postoperative UPSIT value was 30.8 (moderate hyposmia) (P < .001). All patients were fully healed with normal LKES scores by 6 months. All patients complained of their olfactory dysfunction.\n\nConclusions: learn more This study is the first to describe postoperative olfactory perturbations suffered by patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. We hypothesize that olfactory impairment results from use of the HB flap. We recommend that the possibility of permanent olfactory changes be added to routine patient counseling and consent for this procedure, and that HB flaps be raised judiciously during trannssphenoidal endoscopic procedures.”
“Background: Eosinophils are important effector cells in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. Oxidative stress in the form of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the

pathogenesis of several allergic diseases. Recently, it has become evident that mitochondrial-derived ROS are important transducers of apoptosis and intracellular signaling. In this study, we investigated the LXH254 role of mitochondrial ROS in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-3 in human eosinophils stimulated with H(2)O(2).\n\nMethods: Human eosinophils were purified using immunomagnetic negative selection and then stimulated with H(2)O(2), H(2)O(2)-induced eosinophil apoptosis was measured by staining cells with annexin V. Activation of ERK1/2 MAPK and caspases was assessed by Western blotting. Eosinophils were pretreated with rotenone, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, before H(2)O(2) was added.\n\nResults: Treatment with 1 mM H(2)O(2) induced externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and activation of caspases in eosinophils.

“Temporal flower closure is a non-morphological floral cha

“Temporal flower closure is a non-morphological floral character of adaptive significance for growth of some species in extreme environments, and it has important implications for plant reproductive success. Flowers of Tulipa species responded

to changes in temperature and closed temporarily at low temperatures, but they reopened when temperatures increased. In this study, we determined the effects of temporal flower closure of Tulipa iliensis Regel. on mating pattern, flower microenvironmental temperature, and sexual organ functions during exposure to low temperatures, rainfall, and wind. First, flowers of T. iliensis were incompletely herkogamous with stamens longer than the pistil. Floral closure resulted in the contact of dehisced anthers with the stigma and auto-pollen deposition on the stigma, thus facilitating automatic self-pollination. Second, floral closure maintained the GSK923295 research buy temperature inside the flower, providing a stable microenvironment that promoted pollen germination and avoided a decline in stigma receptivity. Third, flower closure of T. iliensis

before rainstorms avoided flushing of pollen from anthers and helped maintain both pollen viability and stigma receptivity during exposure to rain. Finally, flower closure maintained pollen clumping in the anthers during exposure to wind, thereby enhancing pollination efficiency by pollinators and/or automatic selfing. Therefore, temporal flower closure of T. iliensis is an important floral strategy in facilitating selleck chemicals automatic selfing, extending the functional period of male and female organs, and it thus ensures reproductive success in the unpredictable early spring environment.”
“Background:\n\nSeveral Alisertib studies have been performed to evaluate the clinical outcome of implants inserted into maxillae grafted with autogenous bone but few reports have focused on maxillae grafted with fresh-frozen allogenous bone (FFAB).\n\nPurpose:\n\nThe purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of implants installed in resorbed maxillae augmented with FFAB.\n\nMaterials and Methods:\n\nA

total of 69 patients whom had been treated with FFAB grafts to their maxillae and implant placement 4 to 6 months later were retrospectively evaluated. Edentulism was total and partial in 22 and 47 cases, respectively. A total of 287 implants of various systems had been used. A life table analysis was performed. Marginal bone loss was calculated in radiographs.\n\nResults:\n\nFive of the 287 implants were lost, giving a survival rate (SVR) of 98.3% over a mean follow-up time of 26 months. The marginal bone resorption at the implants was 1.68 mm (SD = 0.44) after 1 year and 1.85 mm (SD = 0.98) after 4 years. The cumulative success rate based on defined criteria was 96% in the first year but decreased to 40% at 4 years because of marginal bone loss.

(c) 2013 National Lipid Association All rights reserved “

(c) 2013 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To obtain understanding of how patients with rheumatic diseases experienced participation in an emotion-focused group intervention in terms of influences on their emotional well-being and coping behavior and the processes whereby these influences arose.\n\nMethods: The intervention, Vitality

Training (VTP), was conducted in 10 group sessions over 4 months. Qualitative data were collected from 10 focus group interviews LDC000067 Cell Cycle inhibitor (n = 69) two weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis approach.\n\nResults: Five categories were identified from the analyses: (1) recognizing oneself as both ill and healthy, (2) recognizing own emotions, (3) awareness of own needs, (4) being part of a community and (5) being recognized as a credible patient.\n\nConclusion: The VTP addressed participants’ awareness of emotional and bodily reactions in a process-oriented and supportive group. The program had enhanced participants’ recognition of their disease-related emotions and helped them to more actively relate to their own needs. Practical implications: This study has highlighted how a process-oriented group intervention that combines topics related to life, rather than disease, and learning methods that enhance

Dinaciclib purchase emotional awareness and adaptive emotional expression can enhance emotional well-being and coping behavior in patients with rheumatic diseases. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“How is the bone tissue in skeletal supports of a neonatal elephant organized, and how does this histological structure selleck screening library differ among

the neonates of modern species, mammoths, and insular dwarfs? We used synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-mu CT) to obtain high-resolution image-’slices’ noninvasively, from the femoral and tibial diaphyses of neonatal African elephants, a young juvenile Asian elephant, Columbian mammoths, and California Channel Island pygmy mammoths. The results compared favorably in level of detail with histological sectioning, but without the shrinkage, distortion, or loss of tissue inevitable with histology. From the tomography images we were able to rank by ontogenetic stage specimens of taxa that are otherwise difficult to categorize because they vary greatly in size; from these images we observed that laminar fibro-lamellar bone predominated and were able to quantify vascular patterns. Bones of the Columbian mammoth typically had the thickest and largest number of laminae, whereas the insular dwarfs were notable in their variability. A distinct change in tissue microstructure marks the boundary between prenatal and postnatal periosteal bone deposition.

His BMI was 27 7 Since 11 years he had been treated for arterial

His BMI was 27.7. Since 11 years he had been treated for arterial hypertension and had received oral medication for type 2 diabetes for one year. The latest blood pressure value was 134/109 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/btsa1.html mm Hg during treatment with a combination of atenolol, chlortalidone und hydralazine-HCl; furthermore hr received simvastatin, metformin, glimepirid und ramipril. A standardized telemedical imaging of the retina (“talkingeyes (R)”) was undertaken, revealing focal and generalized arteriolar narrowing of the retinal vessels and a retinal microinfarction (cotton wool spot) in the right eye. The arterial/venous ratio was decreased to 0.74 in the right

and 0.77 in the left eye.\n\nInvestigations: Optical coherence tomographie (OCT) revealed an ischemic microinfarction of the retina with marked axonal swelling. The digital subtraction angiography of the cerebral vessels revealed a 40% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery and a proximal, highgrade stenosis of the basilary artery.\n\nTreatment and course: Angioplasty with stent insertion of the basilary artery was performed. Long-term

observation showed no restenosis and a reduction in the size of the the retinal microinfarct.\n\nConclusion: Retinal microinfarctions denote localized retinal areas of hypoxia and underperfusion. They may act as markers Sotrastaurin inhibitor of a generalized micro- and macroangiopathy. Patients with severe retinal microangiopathic changes should be examined thoroughly to detect early macroangiopathic changes. These can be treated by interventional procedures thus avoiding irreversible end-organ damages.”
“Maternal protein restriction (MPR) during pregnancy impaired the reproduction SHP099 in vitro of male offspring. We investigated, during the first wave of spermatogenesis, whether MPR exerts deleterious effects on germ cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, which was used as a marker

for Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. At the beginning of pregnancy (day 0), dams were fed a control diet (C: 20% casein) or a restricted isocaloric diet (R: 10% casein). After birth, four groups were established: CC, RR, CR and RC (first letter diet during pregnancy and second during lactation). Male offspring were studied at postnatal days 14, 21 and 36. At birth, pup body weight was unchanged. Body weight and testis weight were reduced in RR and CR groups at all ages evaluated. MPR delayed the germinal epithelium development at all ages evaluated. On performing Western blot and immunohistochemistry, AR expression was found to be lower in the three restricted groups. The results suggest that MPR during pregnancy and/or lactation delays SC maturation and germ cell differentiation, and affects intratubular organization. These changes might be responsible for the lower fertility rate at older ages.