Our tally of social referencing did not include instances of the

Our tally of social referencing did not include instances of the child turning to the parent/experimenter during a display change, or if the parent or the experimenter initiated

spoken communication to the child, both of which elicited the child’s attention. We hypothesized that if infants detected the perceptual anomaly in the picture of the impossible cube, it might elicit an increased frequency of vocalizations and/or social referencing to the parent accompanying the child during the study. Infants’ responses were analyzed using a repeated-measures 2 (Sex) × 2 (Order: Possible versus Impossible First) × 3 (Display) analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preliminary analyses revealed no reliable differences in the extent of reaching, social referencing, vocalizations, or mouthing behaviors based on sex or stimulus order,

EPZ015666 molecular weight F(1, 10) = n.s., Pexidartinib molecular weight all p-values > .25, and no interactions, so these between-subjects factors were omitted from further analyses. Data points from the perceptual control displays (tree bark, gray patches, and brown lines) were collapsed into one within-subjects variable for comparison with the possible and impossible cube displays. In order to assure reliability of the experimenter’s judgments, an independent observer who was blind to the hypotheses also coded manual gestures offline for 100% of the final sample. Pearson correlations between the experimenter’s and the coder’s judgments indicated strong interrater reliability for all measures (manual gestures r = .90, p < .01; sequential gestures r = .92, p < .001; social referencing r = .89, p < .01; vocal utterances r = .80, Dichloromethane dehalogenase p < .01). All

tests of statistical significance used an alpha level of .05, and all t-tests were two-tailed. Results of a within-subjects ANOVA yielded a main effect of display, F(2, 26) = 8.76, p < .001, due to differences in mean quantity of categorical types of manual gestures across displays. Pairwise comparisons (with least squares differences [LSD]) revealed that the infants engaged in a greater number of different types of manual exploration toward the impossible cube relative to the possible cube display, t(13) = 2.74, p < .001, and the perceptual controls, t(13) = 4.25, p < .02, as shown in Figure 2a. The mean impossible preference score was .63, which differed significantly from chance, t(13) = 2.48, p < .03. Infants attempted an average of one additional different type of manual gesture toward the impossible cube display above that of the possible cube display and the perceptual controls. The pattern of increased manual exploration toward the impossible cube display was observed in nine of the 14 infants, with four infants responding equally to the two displays, and one with more reaching to the possible cube, Z = 2.13, p = .03.

13 months vs 19 63 months, P = 0 019) The rate of 24-h urinary p

13 months vs 19.63 months, P = 0.019). The rate of 24-h urinary protein decrease after valsartan treatment in the present study is consistent PI3K Inhibitor Library cost with previous studies. For example, the HKVIN study of patients on ARBs showed that the 24-h urinary protein was reduced from 1.80 ± 1.24 g at baseline to 1.26 ± 1.21 g at week 52, and to 1.23 ± 1.25 g at week 104 (P < 0.001).[15] Previous study in the rat indicated that the antioxidant probucol, when added to an Ang II receptor blockade, fully arrests proteinuria and disease progression

in GN.[16]Another study also demonstrated that treatment with an anti-oxidant, alpha-Tocopherol, alone reduced urinary protein in IgA nephropathy in the rat.[17]Consistent with these animals’ results, our data also indicated that during the first 2 years of treatment, probucol Opaganib molecular weight (an antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic agent) in combination with valsartan rapidly reduced urinary protein, a response known to decrease the risk for ESRD in high risk IgA nephropathy patients.[12] This more rapid reduction in urinary protein in the combined therapy group compared to valsartan treatment alone might be due to the potent anti-oxidative effects of probucol.[16] In addition, patients receiving probucol had a decline in plasma cholesterol in the early phases of treatment, but an increase in the later

phases of treatment. These changes in plasma cholesterol paralleled the changes in urinary protein excretion. Previous clinical trials also demonstrated that lowering cholesterol with statin regimens were able

to decrease proteinuria and to improve renal function.[18, 19] Therefore, we cannot rule out the probability of urinary protein reduction is due to the effect of probucol in lowering cholesterol. During the first 2 years of follow-up in our patients, urinary protein tended to decrease. Previous studies reported that urinary protein decreased at 3 months to 2 years after initiation of therapy,[20-22] which was consistent with our findings. However, we noted that urinary protein had increased check at the 2- and 3-year follow-ups, especially in the valsartan (control) group at 2 years. At the end of the study, the 24-h urinary protein levels were comparable to the baseline levels in both groups. This suggests that 750 mg probucol combined with 160 mg valsartan may decrease proteinuria, but the long-term effect remained less convincing. This might be a result of an increase in oxidative stress due to the development of compromised endogenous anti-oxidative responses over the course of 3 years. Disruption of the immune response has a role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.[23, 24] oxidative stress was only as a minor reason. So the absence of steroids and/or immunosuppressants fails to forestall disease progression.

Frequency of screening

Frequency of screening see more Screening frequency for targeted individuals should be yearly if no abnormality is detected on initial evaluation. 4. Who should perform the screening Doctors,

nurses, paramedical staff and other trained healthcare professionals 5. Intervention after screening Patients detected to have CKD should be referred to primary care physicians with experience in management of kidney disease for follow up. A management protocol should be provided to the primary care physicians. Further referral to nephrologists for management will be based on the protocol together with clinical judgment of the primary care physicians with their assessment of the severity of CKD and the likelihood of progression. Kinase Inhibitor Library purchase 6. Screening for cardiovascular disease risk It is recommended that cardiovascular disease risk factors should be screened in all patients with CKD. “
“Date written: April 2009 Final submission: April 2009 Kidney status in people with type 2 diabetes should be assessed by: (Grade B)* a.  Annual screening for albuminuria by: AER 30–300 mg/24 h or AER 20–200 µg/min in timed collection Macroalbuminuria

is indicated by: AER > 300 mg/24 h or AER > 200 µg/min in timed collection OR Albumin: Creatinine Ratio (ACR) – spot urine sample. Microalbuminuria is indicated by: ACR 2.5–25 mg/mmol in males ACR 3.5–35 mg/mmol in females Macroalbuminuria is indicated by: ACR > 25 mg/mmol in males ACR > 35 mg/mmol in females If AER or ACR screening is positive for microalbuminuria: Perform additional ACR or AER measurements one to two times within 3 months. Microalbuminuria is confirmed if at least two

of three tests (including the screening test) are positive. If AER or ACR screening is positive for macroalbuminuria: Perform a 24 h urine collection for quantitation either of protein excretion. AND eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 indicates at least moderate kidney dysfunction (Stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease [CKD]). eGFR 60–90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 may indicate mild kidney dysfunction (Stage 2 CKD if albuminuria also present). Continue annual screening for albuminuria and eGFR in the event of negative screening tests. Screening for microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) should be preformed on an annual basis from the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. This guideline topic has been taken from the NHMRC ‘National Evidence Based Guidelines for Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of CKD in type 2 diabetes’ which can be found in full at the CARI website (http://www.cari.org.au). The NHMRC guideline covers issues related to the assessment and prevention of CKD in individuals with established type 2 diabetes.

Endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched by immersion of the s

Endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched by immersion of the sections in methanol containing 2% H2O2 for 30 min, and non-specific binding was blocked by immersion learn more of the sections in Tris buffered saline (TBS)

containing 2% BSA. Single antigen staining was carried out with antibodies against myeloperoxidase (MPO; DakoCytomation) and IL-8 (Invitrogen), at dilutions of 1 : 600, and with antibody against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN), at a dilution of 1 : 300, in TBS for 45 min. All steps of the procedure were preceded by washes with TBS containing 0·05% Tween-20. After colour development with permanent red chromogen, the sections were counterstained with haematoxylin, dehydrated and mounted. Negative controls comprised omission of the primary antibody and its replacement with TBS. The differences between

experimental groups were analyzed using the Student’s paired and unpaired t-tests. All data are presented as mean ± SE and a difference in mean values was considered significant when the P-value was < 0·05. Correlations between continuous variables were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation test. To avoid the potential dependency between variables related to multiple lesions from the same individual, only one lesion (randomly selected) per patient was included in the statistical analysis. Intralesional expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for IFN-γ, tumour necrosis Navitoclax molecular weight factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-4 was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in patients with CL (n = 31) and in healthy controls (n = 6). Transcripts of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 were

expressed in lesions of all the CL patients, while IL-4 was detected in 77·4% (24/31) of biopsies. The levels of expression of all cytokines were significantly Alectinib ic50 elevated in CL lesions, compared with those in control tissues (P < 0·001 for all cytokines) (Fig. 1). IL-1β was expressed at a very high level compared with other cytokines in all the samples. A strong correlation was found in the expression of IFN-γ with IL-8 (r > 0·7) and IL-10 (r > 0·8), and between TNF-α and IL-8 (r > 0·8). The strongest correlation was observed in the expression of IL-10 with TNF-α and IL-8 and between IFN-γ with TNF-α (r > 0·9, Table 1). Paired samples were collected from nine patients at post-treatment stage for comparative analysis of cytokine mRNA levels. A significant decrease in the levels of expression of mRNA for IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-4 was noticed after treatment (P < 0·05 for levels of all cytokines) (Fig. 2a). IL-8 is a chemoattractant and recruits the accumulation of PMNs at inflammatory sites,17 whereas MCP-1, also a chemoattractant, contributes not only to the recruitment of macrophage into Leishmania-infected skin but also to macrophage activation via the production of NO.

Control (WT) and KO thymocytes were labeled with different concen

Control (WT) and KO thymocytes were labeled with different concentrations of CFSE, mixed at a 1:1 ratio and subsequently injected directly into the thymus of a selleck inhibitor C57BL/6 recipient mouse, at a dose of 4 × 106 cells/mouse, and analyzed 3 days later for developmental progression. CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were

sorted by negative selection using CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell kits and magnetized columns (Miltenyi Biotech) according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Briefly, cells were labeled with biotin-conjugated antibodies (against CD8a (or CD4), CD11b, CD11c, CD19, B220, DX5, CD105, Ter119, and anti-MHC class II) followed by binding to antibiotin beads. The labeled cells were passed through magnetized columns to deplete all non-CD4+ or non-CD8-α+ T cell fractions, thus resulting in purified CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell populations. Subsequently, the purified cells were washed with sorting buffer (PBS supplemented with 2 mM EDTA and 2% FCS), followed by counting and resuspension in DMEM-10 media or PBS. A proliferation assay using thymidine incorporation was carried out as described [45] with minor modifications. Sorted cells were used at a concentration of 1 × 105 cells per well together with 2 × 105 cells per well of irradiated (2000 rads) splenocytes and appropriate stimuli at indicated doses for 3 days. A total of 1 μCi 3H-thymidine was applied to each well

for the last 18–20 h of the 3-day culture period. After cell culture, cells were harvested with the FilterMate Universal Harvester (PerkinElmer, Sheleton, CT, USA) on glass fiber filters (Wallac) and counted with MicroBeta Trilux 1450 LSC (PerkinElmer) Smoothened Agonist research buy using dedicated software. In CFSE assays, sorted cells were stained with 2 μM CFSE and incubated Methane monooxygenase for 72 h with appropriate stimuli at indicated doses. After incubation, CFSE-labeled cells were stained with appropriate antibodies and CFSE dilution within Vα2 positive cells was analyzed using a FACS Calibur cytometer. For adoptive transfer of transgenic T cells the experiments

were performed as previously described [46] with minor modifications. C57BL/6 mice were first immunized in the footpad with OVA protein or with OVA-coated beads in the presence of CFA followed by adoptive transfer of 5 or 10 × 106 cells (labeled with CFSE) from OT1 and OT2 transgenic mice, respectively. Three days after transfer, the proliferation of CFSE-labeled cells in the draining lymph node, within Vα2 positive cells, was analyzed by FACS. For evaluation of homeostatic cell expansion, purified OT1 or OT2 cells stained with CFSE were injected i.v. into RAG recipients (on the C57BL/6 background). The RAG recipients were left untreated for 2 weeks and splenocytes were harvested and analyzed. The proliferation of CFSE-labeled Vα2+ cells was analyzed by FACS and the absolute cell number of Vα2+ and CFSE+ DP cells was calculated.

Among the heterophilic antibodies, IgM RF was associated most clo

Among the heterophilic antibodies, IgM RF was associated most closely with interference in the measurement of tryptase (P < 0·0001). We have not assessed the potential interference associated with IgG and IgA RF activity, which may be important. HAMA detected without RF rarely BAY 57-1293 concentration caused interference. Interpretation of laboratory results should always be made in light of the clinical features. Test results are almost worthless without context. We recommend checking IgM RF levels and consider HBT treatment in all specimens where there is doubt about the significance of the MCT result. This may avoid unnecessary invasive investigations for mastocytosis

or inappropriate diagnosis of anaphylaxis. In anaphylaxis, this step may not be necessary provided that there are consecutive samples showing appropriate rise and fall of MCT values in an acute release pattern which cannot be mimicked by stable heterophile check details activity. The positive predicted value (PPV) of a rise and fall of tryptase in the context of an acute allergic reaction will not change, because the pretest probability is high and heterophilic interference is unlikely to change within 24 h. In this study cohort there were 24 raised MCT samples from anaphylaxis, which remained

elevated post-HBT treatment. However, the PPV of a persistently raised MCT > 20 µg/l as a screen for mastocytosis is likely to be impaired significantly. The positive predictive value of raised MCT alone is not as high as generally assumed when used as a surrogate screen for underlying mastocytosis or acute allergic reactions. Tryptase measurement must be interpreted in the clinical context Raised MCT values may be due to heterophile interference from RF rather than mast cell degranulation. All samples with unexplained or incongruous raised MCT values should be re-tested after treatment with heterophile blocking tubes. None. None. “
“Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polyarticular inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Synovial angiogenesis contributes

to inflammation in RA. In Reverse transcriptase this study we have developed an arthritic model in rats using a novel angiogenic protein (NAP), isolated from human synovial fluid of RA patients. We produced anti-NAP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the same in adjuvant-induced or NAP-induced arthritis as a model of human RA. The treatment of arthritic rats with anti-NAP mAbs resulted in effective amelioration of paw oedema, radiological arthritic characteristics, serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and NAP, compared to that of untreated arthritic animals. Further, profiling of angiogenic markers such as synovial microvessel density, angiogenesis, CD31, VEGF and fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt1) by immunohistochemistry both in arthritic and anti-NAP mAb-treated animals revealed the efficacy of mAb as an anti-angiogenic functional antibody.

Specifically, the increase of CD28null T cells within the CD4+ an

Specifically, the increase of CD28null T cells within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartment is highly associated with a previous CMV infection [14, 20, 21]. However, CD8+ memory

T cells contain far more CD28null as well as CD57+ T cells when compared to CD4+ T cells. These differentiated T cells are known to have short telomeres [16, 22], which we could confirm for ESRD patients in this study. The CD57-expressing cells are found predominantly within the CD2-negative memory T cells, implying that most of the senescent cells are located within this memory fraction and are found to be higher in CMV-seropositive MLN0128 order ESRD patients. As we did not detect an increase in the number of Ki-67+ T cells in the CMV-seropositive patients, we could not establish a higher turnover of memory T cells. This might suggest that, after initial expansion of this cell population shortly after CMV infection [23], these cells will enter a more exhausted state during chronic latency of the virus. This results in a loss of capacity to proliferate accompanied by an increased resistance to apoptosis [24]. Like ESRD patients, individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have T cell deficiencies which

resemble premature T cell ageing, caused probably by continuous triggering of the immune system by the virus [25]. Although the mechanism of creating a prematurely aged T cell compartment for both diseases is different, the end result on T cells is similar www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html (i.e. higher number of differentiated cells with a loss in CD28 expression, shorter telomeres and

a lower number of naive T cells), resulting in similar clinical outcomes such as a higher risk for infections, development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases [26]. In HIV-infected individuals, CMV causes an increase Lepirudin in EMRA CD8+CD28null T cells expressing CD57. These highly differentiated cells are positive for the effector cytotoxins perforin and granzyme B [27, 28]. In HIV patients it was found that strong anti-CMV T cell responses result in a lower number of naive T cells for the CD4 T cell compartment [28]. These CMV effects found in HIV patients are in line with CMV effects in ESRD patients. We have postulated previously that the prematurely aged T cell system in ESRD patients contributes to clinically relevant complications, such as increased infection risk, decreased vaccination response and a highly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases [2, 5, 6, 29-31]. Given their cardiotoxic features, the proinflammatory and highly cytotoxic CD4+CD28null T cells in ESRD patients can be important for later complications [8]. A number of earlier reports have also shown the relation between CMV serostatus, the expansion of CD28null T cells and the increased risk for atherosclerosis in ESRD patients [6-9].

2) The degree of protease resistance is reported to reflect the

2). The degree of protease resistance is reported to reflect the codon 129 genotype,

with VV being least resistant and MM being most resistant, despite having the same 8 kDa PrPres fragment predominating.[79] We have identified two cases of VPSPr prospectively in the UK[80, 81] and recently completed a retrospective review for such cases confirming many of the original observations by Gambetti and colleagues.[41, 79] Our work has shown that some areas of the VPSPr brain contain PrPres similar in appearance to that found in sCJD and conversely Ibrutinib that some cases of sCJD have a very minor PrPres band similar to the 8 kDa PrPres band that typifies VPSPr.[82] The idea that protease-sensitive forms of PrPSc (senPrPSc) exist is not new, but until recently its significance was uncertain. Additionally, senPrPSc is difficult to detect directly, requiring techniques, such as conformation-dependent immunoassay (CDI), that identify PrPSc on the basis the exposure of specific PrP epitopes by treatment with chaotropic salts. The application of CDI to the post-mortem sCJD brain showed that more than 80% of the PrPSc (as defined by CDI) is sensitive to proteolytic degradation under the conditions generally used for Western blot PrPres typing.[83] We have confirmed

these results and extended them NVP-BKM120 cell line to vCJD, which also has more senPrPSc than PrPres present in the brain (Fig. 3).[84] It is worth pointing out that by definition senPrPSc does not figure in conventional Western blotting analyses and cannot therefore be ascribed a PrPres type. It is therefore possible that phenotypic and strain-related aspects of human prion diseases could be engendered by senPrPSc. The progressive Org 27569 unfolding of PrPSc with increasing chaotrope concentration had previously been shown to produce complex rodent

scrapie strain-specific CDI readings or “melt curves”.[60] Direct application of this methodology to human brain specimens is fraught with difficulties; however, we have been able to show that when detergent insoluble PrPSc is analyzed, the stability of vCJD and sCJD PrPSc differs. The stability of PrPSc in the MM1 and VV2 sCJD subtypes is indistinguishable but their PrPSc is more stable than that of vCJD (Fig. 4).[85] Interestingly synthetic prions made by refolding recombinant PrP display a diverse conformational stability, as judged by CDI-like methods[86] and this property has a phenotypic correlate: those strains of synthetic prions with least stability have the shortest incubation periods.[87] Moreover, protease-sensitive synthetic prions can be made and serially passaged in a specific transgenic mouse host.

Importantly, our detailed analysis demonstrates that the Equ c 11

Importantly, our detailed analysis demonstrates that the Equ c 1143–160-specific CD4+ T-cell responses from this, as well as other non-allergic individuals examined, appeared to derive solely from the naive CD4+ T-cell subset (Fig. 4a, b). In contrast, all the Equ c 1143–160-specific CD4+ T-cell responses from allergic subjects derived from the memory CD4+ T-cell subset (Fig. 4a, b). Consequently, the situation with the Equ c 1 allergen appears to be similar to our previous observations with the Bos d 2 and Can f 1 allergens in that allergic subjects have elevated frequencies of CD4+ memory T cells in their peripheral blood.[1, 2] This notion is also

in line with the available data on CD4+ T-cell responses to other allergens, such as cat Fel d 1[3] Selleck GSI-IX and peanut

Ara h 1.[4] Taken together, our current results further support the concept that the frequency of allergen-specific CD4+ learn more T cells, especially those of the memory phenotype, is higher in allergic subjects.[1-7] As reported above, one non-allergic subject had strong cellular reactivity to Equ c 1, which was derived from the naive CD4+ T-cell subset (Fig. 4a). Although reasons for the reactivity are not known, it can be speculated that this individual has a predisposition for sensitization to Equ c 1. Nevertheless, the finding points to a possibility that healthy subjects are not a homogeneous group with low or non-existent levels of allergen-specific T cells. Therefore, further investigations are clearly necessary to explore the complete repertoire of T-cell reactivity to allergenic proteins among healthy subjects. The estimated frequency of Equ c 1 protein-specific CD4+ T cells was very low, in the range of 1 per 106 CD4+ T cells, in the peripheral blood of sensitized and healthy subjects. Although methodological and other differences between studies may complicate direct comparison, the frequency corresponds well with our previous

estimates with the Bos d 2 and Can f 1 allergens.[1, 2] In line with our observations, the frequency of birch pollen Bet v 1-specific CD4+ T cells was reported to be in the same range in the peripheral blood of sensitized subjects Y-27632 cost outside the birch pollen season. At the peak of the season, however, this frequency was strongly increased.[19] It is of interest that a tetramer-based enrichment method showed high frequencies (up to 1 in 7000 cells), and considerable variation, of specific CD4+ T cells to an important animal-derived allergen, cat Fel d 1, in allergic subjects.[7] Elevated frequencies of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells compared with healthy donors have also been found in allergy to the peanut Ara h 1, rye grass Lol p 1, and alder Aln g 1 allergens.[4-6] In the current study, the frequency of Equ c 1-specific CD4+ T cells in most healthy subjects was also lower than that in allergic subjects.

“Language learners rapidly acquire extensive semantic know

“Language learners rapidly acquire extensive semantic knowledge, but the development of this knowledge is difficult to study, in part because it is difficult to assess young children’s lexical semantic representations. In our studies, we solved this problem by investigating lexical semantic knowledge in 24-month-olds using the Head-turn Preference

Procedure. In Experiment 1, looking times to a repeating spoken word stimulus (e.g., kitty-kitty-kitty) were shorter for trials preceded by a semantically related word (e.g., dog-dog-dog) than trials preceded by an unrelated word (e.g., juice-juice-juice). Experiment 2 yielded similar results using a method in which pairs of words were presented on the same trial. The studies provide Crizotinib price evidence that young children activate of lexical semantic knowledge, BMN 673 order and critically, that they do so in the absence of visual referents or sentence contexts. Auditory lexical priming is a promising technique for studying the development and structure of semantic knowledge in young children. “
“The aim of this study was to examine the combined influences of infants’ attention and use of social cues in the prediction of their language outcomes. This longitudinal study measured infants’ visual attention on a distractibility task (11 months), joint attention (14 months), and language outcomes (word–object

association, 14 months; MBCDI vocabulary size and multi-word productions at 18 months of age). Path analyses were conducted for two different language outcomes. The analysis for vocabulary revealed unique direct prediction from infants’

visual attention on a distractibility task (i.e., maintaining attention to a target event in the presence of competing events) and joint attention (i.e., more frequent response click here to tester’s bids for attention) for larger vocabulary size at outcome; this model accounted for 48% of variance in vocabulary, after controlling for baseline communication status (assessed at 11 months). The analysis for multi-word productions yielded direct effects for infants’ distractibility, but not joint attention; this model accounted for 45% of variance in multi-word productions, again after controlling for baseline communication status. Indirect effects were not significant in either model. Results are discussed in light of the unique predictive role of attentional factors and social/attention cues for emerging language. “
“Two studies illustrate the functional significance of a new category of prelinguistic vocalizing—object-directed vocalizations (ODVs)—and show that these sounds are connected to learning about words and objects. Experiment 1 tested 12-month-old infants’ perceptual learning of objects that elicited ODVs. Fourteen infants’ vocalizations were recorded as they explored novel objects.