Healing was assessed with biweekly serial radiographs, micro-comp

Healing was assessed with biweekly serial radiographs, micro-computed tomography of the explanted bones, and histologic analysis.

Results: rhPDGF-BB treatment significantly increased

new-bone formation at the midconsolidation time points (Days 42, 49, and 56) as well as the union rate. On Day 49 regenerate bone volume was significantly greater in each of the three rhPDGF-BB-treated groups than in the controls (p < 0.05, p = 0.0002, and p < 0.05 for the 100, 300, and 1000 mu g/mL rhPDGF-BB groups, respectively), whereas on Day 42 regenerate bone volume was significantly greater in the 300 and 1000 mu g/mL rhPDGF-BB groups than in the controls (p = 0.0002 and p < 0.05, respectively) and on Day 56 regenerate bone volume was significantly greater in the 100 and 300 mu g/mL rhPDGF-BB groups than in the controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, find more respectively). The overall union rate was 40.4% (nineteen of forty-seven) in the rhPDGF-BB-treated animals, compared with 4.5%

(one of twenty-two) in the controls (p = 0.01). The radiographic and histologic results were consistent with new-bone formation as quantified by micro-computed tomography, although they were less definitive.

Conclusions: The administration Dinaciclib of exogenous rhPDGF-BB into the distraction site during diaphyseal distraction enhanced bone-healing in a rat model of distraction osteogenesis as evidenced by both increased regenerate new-bone formation and a higher union rate.

Clinical Relevance: The ability of rhPDGF-BB to enhance healing in this model suggests that it may be able to shorten treatment

time and to decrease the nonunion rate in the BKM120 challenging healing environment created during distraction osteogenesis.”
“The Myelopathy Disability Index and the Neck Disability Index are widely used to assess outcome in cervical spine surgery. Short Form (SF) 36 is a generic measure of health which can be used to measure health gains across a wide variety of conditions. The aim of the current study is to assess long-term outcomes using these measures in a cohort of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Cohort study with prospective data collection. Patients with CSM being offered decompressive surgery were asked to complete a set of generic and condition-specific outcome measures. This was repeated post-operatively at 3, 12, 24 and 60 months. SF-36 was used as a generic outcome measure and the Myelopathy Index, Neck Disability Score and visual analogue scores for arm, neck and hand pain, paraesthesia and dysthaesia were used as condition-specific outcome measures.

Significant improvements in all outcome measures were seen in 70 % of the cohort. For SF-36, pre-operative scores were lower than age-matched controls in all domains and significant improvements were seen 3 months following surgery. This improvement in outcome was maintained at 5 years follow-up in approximately two-thirds of those with initial improvement.

Results: Nonholders experienced more opioid withdrawal (SUbOWS-NH

Results: Nonholders experienced more opioid withdrawal (SUbOWS-NH: 22.0 +/- 8.8 vs. PH: 12.2 +/- 8.2 vs. H: 9.3 +/- 10.0, p < 0.001) and craving (OCDUS-NH: 11.4 +/- 8.8 vs. PH: 6.4 +/- 6.9 vs. H: 6.5 +/- 6.2, p = 0.016). Holders experienced less Obsessive/Cornpulsive psychological distress (SCL-90-NH: 15.3 +/- 8.1 vs. PH: 12.3 +/- 7.3 vs. H: 6.6 +/- 5.1, p < 0.001), Depression/Dejection (POMS-NH: 19.7 +/- 13.7 vs. PH: 17.2 +/- 13.2 vs. H: 7.9 +/- 10.4, p = 0.002), and neurotic personality (NEO-NH: 63.3 +/- 12.3 vs. PH: 60.9 +/- 10.0 vs.

H: 54.0 +/- 8.8, p=0.006). Partial holders had a www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html less agreeable personality (NEO-NH: 44.2 +/- 8.6 vs. PH: 38.0 +/- 10.6 vs. H: 47.6 +/- 11.7, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Physical opioid withdrawal is an important

factor in understanding patient satisfaction with MMT. However, patient characteristics, such as level of psychological distress and negative mood, may also need to be considered because of their relationship with perceived inter-dose opioid withdrawal symptoms and patient satisfaction. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Controversy exists regarding the optimal technique of subscapularis tendon mobilization during shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of the present randomized double-blind Staurosporine supplier study was to compare two of these techniques-lesser tuberosity osteotomy and subscapularis peel-with regard to muscle strength and functional outcomes.

Methods: Selleckchem Blebbistatin Patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty were randomized to undergo either a lesser tuberosity osteotomy or a subscapularis peel. The primary outcome was subscapularis muscle strength as measured with an electronic handheld dynamometer at twenty-four months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder Index and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores. A sample size calculation determined that eighty-six patients provided

90% power with a 0.79 effect size to detect a significant difference between groups.

Results: Forty-three patients were allocated to subscapularis osteotomy, and forty-four patients were allocated to subscapularis peel. Eighty-three percent of the study cohort returned for the twenty-four-month follow-up. The primary outcome of subscapularis muscle strength at twenty-four months revealed no significant difference (p = 0.131) between the lesser tuberosity osteotomy group (mean [and standard deviation], 4.4 +/- 2.9 kg) and the subscapularis peel group (mean, 5.5 +/- 2.6 kg). Comparison of secondary outcomes, including the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder Index and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, demonstrated no significant differences between groups at any time point.

The use of scheduled coil re-entry embolization of the false lume

The use of scheduled coil re-entry embolization of the false lumen before endovascular entry coverage using a stent graft is a novel approach that could become a treatment option for aneurysmal type B dissection.”
“This study aimed to assess the nutritional composition of the fruit and the physicochemical and bioactive properties of jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril L) pulp and seed oils. The lipid content

of both fractions was below 6%. There was a significant presence of minerals, especially, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. The main macronutrient in pulp and seed was crude fiber, and considerable amounts of Vitamin C, 51.87 and 121.45 mg/100 g respectively, were found. The physicochemical properties demonstrated the good quality PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 nmr of the oils. The oxidative stability index ON-01910 cost was influenced by the composition of fatty acids reaching a value of 45.97 h for the jatoba pulp oil. The most abundant bioactive compounds were alpha-tocopherol (886.37 and 993.63 mg/kg) and beta-sitosterol (61.83 and 91.09 mg/kg) for pulp and seed oils, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids in the pulp, the oleic (46.09%) and linolenic acid (14.54%) stood out. The pulp and seed oils can be considered a valuable source for new industrial, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.”

A case-cohort study was performed

to clarify and compare the risk factors for placental abruption and placenta previa.

Material & Methods:

This study reviewed 242 715 births at 125 centers of the perinatal network in Japan from 2001 through to 2005 as a base-cohort. Women with

singleton pregnancies delivered after 22 weeks of gestation were included. The evaluation determined the risk factors for placental abruption and placenta previa. Five click here thousand and thirty-six births (2.1%) were determined as the subcohort by random selection. Acute-inflammation-associated clinical conditions (premature rupture of membranes and clinical chorioamnionitis) and chronic processes associated with vascular dysfunction or chronic inflammation (chronic and pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-existing or gestational diabetes and maternal smoking) was examined between the two groups.


Placental abruption and placenta previa were recorded in 10.1 per 1000 and 13.9 per 1000 singleton births. Risk factors for abruption and previa, respectively, included maternal age over 35 years (adjusted risk ratios [RRs] = 1.20 and 1.78), IVF-ET (RRs = 1.38 and 2.94), preterm labor (RRs = 1.63 and 3.09). Smoking (RRs = 1.37), hypertension (RRs = 2.48), and pregnancy-induced hypertension (RR = 4.45) were risk factors for abruption but not for previa. On the other hand, multiparity (RR = 1.18) was a risk factor for previa but not for abruption. The rates of acute-inflammation-associated conditions and chronic processes were higher among women with abruption than with previa. (RR 2.0 and 4.08, respectively).

Methods: We used the 2003 French Decennial Health Survey of a rep

Methods: We used the 2003 French Decennial Health Survey of a representative sample of the general population-including 22,620 adult subjects who completed the SF-36 questionnaire-to test various socio-demographic, health status and QoL variables as potential predictors of missingness. We constructed logistic regression models for each SF-36 item to identify independent predictors and classify them according to Little and Rubin (“”missing completely

at random”", “”missing at random”" and “”missing not at random”").

Results: The type of missingness was missing at random for half of the items of the SF-36 and missing not at random selleck inhibitor for the others. None of the items were missing completely at random. Independent predictors of missingness were age, female sex, low scores on the SF-36 subscales and in some cases low educational level, occupation, nationality and poor health status.

Conclusion: This study of the SF-36 shows that imputation

of missing items is necessary and emphasizes several factors for missingness that should be considered in prevention strategies of missing data. Similar methodologies could be applied to item missingness in other QoL questionnaires.”
“Turkey is not only the main apricot (Prunus armeniaca) producer and exporter in the world, but it also has a wide variety of apricot germplasms, owing to its close proximity KPT-8602 solubility dmso to the centers of apricot origin. However, there is little or no genetic information on many apricot cultivars that are extensively cultivated in Turkey. We examined the genetic relatedness of 25 Turkish and four exotic apricot cultivars using SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers that were either previously developed for apricot, or for peach (P. persica), a close relative of apricot. Allele diversity (with an average allele number of 6.37) at the SSR loci and the heterozygosity rates (with an average Ho value of 0.648) of these cultivars were found to be higher than in previous studies that used the same loci for apricot. This fact might be

attributed to the analysis of different numbers of accessions in the different studies. No correlations were found between the genetic relatedness and the geographical distributions of these cultivars. The IPI 145 data reported here will assist in the prevention of confusions in the apricot propagation and breeding in Turkey. The findings can also be directly compared with other studies that used the same SSR markers on apricot.”
“The prevalence of renal insufficiency in hypertensive participants without comorbidities affecting renal function is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of renal insufficiency in general hypertensive population. We examined 994 hypertensive participants aged 45-70 years without previously diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease.

SummaryAfter considering the evolution of lung donor and recipien

SummaryAfter considering the evolution of lung donor and recipient management practices, in 2013 the available evidence suggests that the traditional factors defining a lung as extended’, do not actually compromise outcomes within the framework of current management strategies. Extended donor lungs are safe.”
“This study was designed to characterize the nutraceutical composition of a water-soluble

enzymatic extract from rice bran (EERB) and to evaluate its antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities. The EERB contains broad functional components in water soluble form such as sterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, gamma-oryzanol and peptides. The antioxidant behaviour of EERB specifically against selleck products lipid oxidation was measured in an emulsion prepared with fish oil containing fatty acid very susceptible to oxidation (EPA; DHA 30%): the emulsion shows a stable antioxidant activity, Nirogacestat price specifically preserving the lipid from peroxidation phenomena and inhibiting the generation

of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid peroxides. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats through two different hypercholesterolemic diet models: a reduction in total cholesterol levels and an increase in HDL-cholesterol were found in both models. EERB is a new product from rice bran that can control lipid oxidation in emulsions and induce a physiological hypocholesterolemic effect. These findings may facilitate the development and use of new products derived from rice within the functional food SB202190 price field. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of unstable distal radial fractures is reported to provide stable fixation with minimal soft-tissue complications, but there is a paucity of data documenting the results of this technique. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the functional

outcomes of treatment of unstable distal radial fractures with an intramedullary nail.

Methods: Patients aged fifty years and older with a dorsally displaced unstable distal radial fracture-an extra-articular or simple intra-articular fracture-that was amenable to closed or percutaneous reduction were offered treatment with intramedullary nail fixation (MICRONAIL). Thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study, and twenty-nine patients with a mean age of sixty-seven years (range, fifty-one to eighty-five years) were available for one-year follow-up. According to the AO classification, there was one type-A2, twenty-four type-A3, and four type-C2 distal radial fractures. The patients were evaluated at six weeks, three months, six months, and one year after surgery.

Their molecular structures

Their molecular structures selleck kinase inhibitor were confirmed by the (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and FTIR analysis. The UV-vis spectrum analysis results showed that BP-HPEAs exhibit the stronger n-pi* absorption at similar to 340 nm with over two times higher molar extinction coefficients than BP at the concentration of 1.00 x 10 (3)M. The photoinitiating activity study

showed that the maximum photopolymerization rates of 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate initiated by BP-HPEAs in the absence of coinitiator were obtained by two times higher than that by BP in the presence of triethylamine as a coinitiator. Moreover, the excellent miscibility of BP-HPEAs with the commercial bisphenol A epoxy diacrylate was achieved according to the T(s)/T(g) ratios of over 9.0 from DMTA. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1494-1501, 2012″
“We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with known recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and an unremarkable ocular history who experienced an extensive corneal epithelial blister during phacoemulsification cataract surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this complication.”
“Until recently, very little data existed on long-term seizure prognosis of patients with intractable epilepsy. CX-4945 clinical trial We review recent work that assessed

seizure remission in patients with intractable epilepsy during medical management. Recent prevalence cohort studies among adults with longstanding intractable epilepsy have demonstrated notable proportions of patients attaining at least 1-year seizure freedom, ranging from more than 10% to nearly 30% of patients, when followed for mean duration of 18 months to 6 years. Additionally, a recent prospective cohort study of pediatric-onset intractable epilepsy (followed prospectively for seizure outcome from onset of intractability) revealed minimum 1-year seizure remission

among more than half of study patients. Despite the notable rates of remission seen among patients with intractable epilepsy, many individuals experienced subsequent seizure relapse. These findings highlight the continued importance of surgical therapy for those who are good candidates and the need for further development MLN4924 of effective therapeutic interventions.”
“Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a novel class of shape memory materials which can store a deformed (temporary) shape and recover an original (permanent) shape under a shape memory thermomechanical loading-unloading cycle. The deformation mechanisms of SMPs are very complicated, but the SMPs also have a lot of advantages and the widespread application value and prospect. So developing proper constitutive models that describe thermomechanical properties of SMPs and the shape memory effect is very challenging and of great theoretical and application value. Based on the deformation mechanisms and considerable experimental investigations of SMPs, researchers have developed many constitutive models.

Depth electrodes were inserted deep into the mass, which recorded

Depth electrodes were inserted deep into the mass, which recorded focal slow waves associated with the clinical myoclonus. Following the removal of the tumor, the myoclonus was completely resolved with no neurological deficit. Here, the authors present a

case showing progressive myoclonus associated with a cerebellar ganglioglioma with the electrophysiological data, which provides strong supportive evidence that the cerebellum can be a myoclonus generator.”
“A full Wheatstone bridge sensor composed of linear MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) was designed and achieved. The magnetization direction of reference layers in the required bridge arms was successfully switched by using VS-6063 local current heating method, also demonstrating a viable method of manipulation of pinning direction for exchange bias system on a chip level. The final bridge output shows approximately full signal of individual MTJ but almost null output in the absence of any applied sensing field and small offset of voltage and field. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3360583]“
“Background: Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been this website recently developed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate

the performance of in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based IGRA for detecting TB in children.

Methods: A prospective study in 336 children at risk for TB infection was carried out. All children were tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and a commercial ELISA-based IGRA [QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (Cellestis)]

Results: TST were positive in 58 of 336 (17.3%) and IGRA in 60 of 336 (17.9%) children. Two (0.6%) IGRA results were indeterminate. The overall agreement https://www.sellecn.cn/products/INCB18424.html between the 2 tests was intermediate (86.2%, kappa = 0.533). IGRA was positive in 15 of 16 (93,8%) children with active pulmonary TB. The discordant pattern IGRA-/TST+ was significantly associated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. Among IGRA+ children (excluding

cases of TB disease), TST-were significantly younger than TST+ children.

Conclusions: The good agreement between positive IGRA and active TB disease suggests a good sensitivity of IGRA. Discrepancies between IGRA and TST can be a result of higher specificity of IGRA that is not influenced by previous BCG vaccination. IGRA may be more sensitive in children younger than 48 months.”
“BackgroundRecommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis in dermatologic surgery have been established, but there is variability in perioperative antibiotic use of dermatologists. Authoritative guidelines have shifted away from routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis because there is no conclusive evidence that antibiotic use reduces risk of infective endocarditis or prosthetic joint infection.

The characterization was performed by the use of ultraviolet visi

The characterization was performed by the use of ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and transmission electron

microscopy. The swellability of the hydrogel containing nanosilver particles was also studied, and the dependence of the swellability on the abundance of silver nanoparticles in the hydrogel composite was verified. It was further disclosed that the kinetic model matched the experimental data; meanwhile, the diffusion of water into the hydrogel was non-Fickian type. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2168-2174, 2010″
“The asymmetrical distribution of F-actin directed by cell polarity IWR-1-endo supplier has been observed during the migration of monospores from the red alga Porphyra

yezoensis. The significance of Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling during the formation of cell polarity in migrating monospores was analysed pharmacologically. The results indicate that the inhibition of the establishment of cell polarity, as judged by the ability of F-actin to localize asymmetrically, cell wall synthesis, and development into germlings, occurred when monospores were treated with inhibitors of the Ca2+ permeable channel, phospholipase C (PLC), diacylglycerol kinase, and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Moreover, it was also found that light triggered the establishment of cell polarity via photosynthetic activity but not its direction, indicating that the Ca2+ influx and PLC activation required for the establishment of cell polarity

are light dependent. By contrast, inhibition of phospholipase D (PLD) prevented the migration of monospores BTK inhibitors library but not the asymmetrical localization of F-actin. Taken together, these findings suggest that there is functional diversity between the PLC and PLD signalling systems in terms of the formation of cell polarity; the former being critical for the light-dependent establishment of cell polarity and the latter playing a role in the maintenance of established cell polarity.”
“Objective-To determine the feasibility of qualifying individuals or groups of Yellowstone National Park bison as free from brucellosis.

Design-Cohort study.

Sample-Serum, blood, and various samples AS1842856 inhibitor from live bison and tissues taken at necropsy from 214 bison over 7 years.

Procedures-Blood was collected from bison every 30 to 45 days for serologic tests and microbiological culture of blood for Brucella abortus. Seropositive bison were euthanized until all remaining bison had 2 consecutive negative test results. Half the seronegative bison were randomly euthanized, and tissues were collected for bacteriologic culture. The remaining seronegative bison were bred, and blood was tested at least twice per year. Cow-calf pairs were sampled immediately after calving and 6 months after calving for evidence of B abortus.

Accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functio

Accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated cellular, biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots under Hg stress. Root growth rate was decreased and Hg, reactive

oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase activity were increased significantly with increasing Hg concentration in roots. We VX-661 order revealed a time-dependent alteration in total glutathione content and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during Hg stress. 2-D electrophoresis revealed differential expression of 25 spots with Hg treatment of roots: 14 spots were upregulated and 11 spots downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were identified by ESI-MS/MS to be involved in cellular functions including redox and hormone homeostasis, chaperone BAY 57-1293 manufacturer activity, metabolism, and transcription regulation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Hg stress response in plants. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Bacillus strains

isolated from different habitats were screened and identified for high protease activity. Two of the bacillus strains genetically identified as Bacillus subtilis AG-1 and Bacillus subtilis EAG-2 exhibited tremendous potential for protease production. The strains were optimized with respect to production media and its components. Culture conditions were critically investigated with reference to other key determinants,

involving inoculum concentration, incubation time, initial pH of the medium and temperature. The optimum production pH and temperature was found to be 7.0 and 35 degrees C for B. subtilis AG-1, while 7.2 and 37 degrees C were the optimum conditions for B. subtilis EAG-2. The inoculation ratio and incubation time were determined OSI-906 chemical structure for both of the strains as 1% (v/v) and 24-32 h respectively. The study reveals that, high protease yield can be achieved over a moderate fermentation period with relatively economical production costs. Hence these strains might be useful for commercial exploitation.”
“Diabetes is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered to be a major pathogenic factor for diabetic vascular complications. The levels of AGEs are increased in diabetic patients. We have studied the presence of the major AGE methylglyoxal (MGO)-derived hydroimidazolone in human aorta and carotid arteries, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blotting and mass spectrometry. By IHC, MGO-derived modifications were detected mainly associated with cells in intimal thickenings and cells in microvessels in adventitia. In type V lesions MGO-derived AGE was also present, extracellular in the necrotic core and in cells at the border of the core.

“Background: Highly cross-linked polyethylene was introduc

“Background: Highly cross-linked polyethylene was introduced for clinical use in total hip arthroplasty with the expectation that it would exhibit less wear when compared with conventional polyethylene. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical and radiographic results, after a minimum of five years of follow-up, of a randomized, blinded, controlled trial comparing a conventional polyethylene with a first-generation highly cross-linked polyethylene.

Methods: One hundred patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized controlled study comparing highly crosslinked and conventional

polyethylene acetabular liners in total hip arthroplasty. Fifty patients were in each group. At the time of follow-up, clinical outcomes were

assessed and steady-state femoral GSK1120212 head penetration rates (after bedding-in) for each patient were calculated with use of a validated radiographic technique. Erastin research buy In addition, a statistical comparison of polyethylene wear between groups was performed with use of generalized estimating equations.

Results: At a mean of 6.8 years postoperatively, there were no differences between the two polyethylene groups with regard to the Harris hip score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), or Short Form-12 (SF-12) score. The mean femoral head penetration rate in the first through fifth years was found to be significantly lower in the group treated with the highly cross-linked polyethylene (0.003 mm/yr [95% confidence interval, +/- 0.027]) than it was in the group treated with conventional polyethylene (0.051 mm/yr [95% confidence interval, CRT0066101 order +/- 0.022]) (p = 0.006). Men treated with a conventional polyethylene liner had a significantly higher (p <= 0.012) femoral head penetration rate (0.081 mm/yr [95% confidence interval, +/- 0.0651)

than both men and women with a highly cross-linked liner -0.013 mm/yr [95% confidence interval, +/- 0.074] and 0.009 mm/yr (95% confidence interval, 0.028], respectively). The general estimating equations demonstrated that the group with a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner had a significantly lower femoral head penetration rate than the group with a conventional polyethylene liner (p = 0.025), and a significantly higher femoral head penetration rate was demonstrated in men with a conventional polyethylene liner when compared with both men and women with a highly cross-linked liner (p = 0.003).

Conclusions: At a minimum of five years postoperatively, the steady-state femoral head penetration rate associated with this first-generation highly cross-linked polyethylene liner was significantly lower than that associated with a conventional polyethylene liner. Long-term follow-up is required to demonstrate the clinical benefit of this new material.