Materials and Methods: In-house seasonal and pandemic influenza-specific
polymerase chain reaction assays were introduced and/or developed at the Molecular Diagnosis Centre (MDC) at the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. These assays have been used to test all samples received from in-patients, out-patients, staff and visitors for suspected pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 infection. Results: Prior to the arrival of the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus in Singapore at the end of May 2009, seasonal influenza A/H3N2 predominated in this population, with very little seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses detected. Within about 1 month of its arrival in Singapore (mainly during June to July 2009), this MDV3100 manufacturer pandemic virus rapidly displaced seasonal influenza A/H3N2 to become the predominant strain in the Singaporean population served by MDC/NUH. Conclusions: Real-time molecular techniques have allowed the prompt
detection of different influenza subtypes during this current pandemic, which has revealed the displacement/replacement of previously circulating seasonal subtypes with A/H1N1/2009. Although some of this may be explained by immunological cross-reactivity between influenza subtypes, more studies are required. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010;39:291-4″
“Chordoma is a neoplasm of notochordal differentiation that typically occurs in the axial skeleton. Accurate diagnosis is therapeutically Nutlin-3 order important but can be challenging, especially in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Immunohistochemistry for the transcription factor brachyury (T) has recently proven diagnostically useful in whole-tissue sections. LB-100 ic50 Our aim was to compare brachyury performance with conventional markers (S-100, EMA, keratin) and to evaluate its utility in distinguishing chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics. Brachyury
immunohistochemistry was performed on chordoma (8 FNA, 12 CNB), chondrosarcoma (10 FNA), and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (12 FNA). Immunohistochemistry performed at the time of diagnosis was also reviewed. Brachyury was positive in 17 (85%) cases of chordoma and typically showed moderate-to-strong nuclear staining. Of five sets of concurrent FNA and CNB, four pairs were positive for brachyury in both samples and one pair was positive for brachyury in the CNB and negative in the cell block. S-100, EMA, and keratin stains were available for 13 chordomas: 9 (69%) cases (including the 3 negative for brachyury) were positive for S-100 and keratin or EMA; 4 cases were keratin positive but S-100 negative. No nuclear brachyury staining was seen in chondrosarcoma or adenocarcinoma, though two adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic staining. Brachyury separates chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics with high sensitivity and specificity in small biopsies. As a single test, brachyury has higher sensitivity than a combined panel of S-100 and epithelial markers.