Both phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the MEGA4 program (Tamura et al., 2007) applying the neighbor-joining method (Saitou and Nei, 1987). A bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates was used to test the stability of the achieved trees. The nucleotide substitution model of Kimura-2-parameter was used to calculate the genetic distance between each pair of
sequences. In the phylogenetic analysis based on the part of the 18S rRNA (Fig. 2) the trichomonad sequence of the quail was placed within the family of Tritrichomonadidae supported by a bootstrap value of 94. The phylogenetic tree of the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 region (Fig. 3) displayed the unknown trichomonad sequence near the family of Tritrichomonadidae but not Bleomycin mw in the same close relationship as the 18S rRNA gene tree depicted. Taken together, this work presents a necropsy case of a Carfilzomib common quail which showed a severe colonization of the large intestine with trichomonads as an incidental finding at histopathological examination. The invading intestinal parasites were positive with a chromogenic ISH for Trichomonadida but negative in similar assays for known avian trichomonads. Therefore, the presence of a
newly not yet described trichomonad species had to be considered. Subsequent gene sequence analyses of rRNA genes revealed a similarity of 95% with a sequence of T. foetus, a trichomonad found in cattle, pigs and cats. No T. foetus-like sequence has ever been reported from birds. There is only one report of a tritrichomonad
infection (with a species originally named Tritrichomonas gigantica) in a common quail ( Navarathnam, 1970). However, neither an isolate nor sequence data are available from this species. Also, the morphologic variations detected for T. gigantica may lead to the assumption that more than one trichomonad species was included in this original description. There have been no other studies confirming the validity of this species and its existence may be considered doubtful. However it cannot be excluded that the present study and the earlier first report relate to the same organism. Both phylogenetic analyses placed the obtained trichomonad species either within or in close relation to the family of Tritrichomonadidae. This result strongly suggests the detection of an as yet undescribed Tritrichomonas species in the intestine of a common quail. Since no unfixed tissue material is available from this bird a complete species description including morphological analysis and cultivation of the trichomonads was not possible. The large numbers of luminal and invading protozoa associated with a diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa indicate a pathogenic potential of the parasites. Further studies on quail trichomonads are needed to determine whether this case presented only an aberrant infection of a single animal, or if the newly described tritrichomonas are inherent parasites of quails.