Depletion of HIV-specific CD8+ IL-10+ cells from PBMCs led to upregulation of CD38 on CD14+ monocytes together
with increased IL-6 production, in response to gag stimulation. Increased CD38 expression was positively correlated with the frequency of the IL-10+ population and was also induced by exposure of monocytes to HIV-1 in vitro. Production https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ink128.html of IL-10 by HIV-specific CD8+ T cells may represent an adaptive regulatory response to monocyte activation during chronic infection. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a critical role in limiting proinflammatory immune responses that might otherwise cause damage to the host. During infection, the timing and cellular source of IL-10 production PCI-32765 ic50 are essential to the balance between successful pathogen clearance by innate and adaptive responses and the prevention of immune pathology. Mistimed or excessive IL-10 production can interfere with elimination or control of various bacteria, viruses, and protozoa . For example, in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model, blockade of IL-10 signalling resulted in clearance of a chronic viral infection by host and vaccine-induced cell-mediated immune responses [2, 3]. It was noted nearly two decades
ago that IL-10 is upregulated from an early stage of HIV-1 infection and this was proposed to underlie Th cell dysfunction [4, 5]. More recent studies reporting enhancement of HIV-specific effector T-cell responses following in vitro depletion of virus-specific IL-10-producing ‘suppressor’ cells or antibody-mediated blockade of IL-10
support this notion [6, 7]. However, IL-10 gene transcription is upregulated in multiple cell types in the peripheral blood during chronic HIV-1 infection . Whether the reported immune suppressive effects are limited to a specific cell subset is unresolved . This is of critical importance for the development of new therapeutic interventions aiming to ameliorate CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections including HIV-1. An additional consideration learn more is that IL-10 induction in HIV-1 infection may protect the host from excessive immune activation, since diverse pathogens that cause chronic infections drive the expansion of IL-10-producing adaptive or induced T regulatory (Treg) cells in the periphery [9-11]. In support of this notion, rapid induction of strong Treg-cell responses, together with TGF-β and IL-10, was observed in primary SIV infection of African green monkeys, which is typically nonpathogenic, while these responses were delayed in pathogenic SIV infection in macaques . Furthermore, the presence of an IL-10 promoter polymorphism conferring increased cytokine expression was associated with delayed CD4+ T-cell decline in HIV-1 infection .