Nat Nanotechnol 2008, 3:210–215.CrossRef 40. Stampfer C, Molitor F, Graf D, Ensslin K, Jungen A, Hierold C, Ensslin K: Raman imaging of doping domains in graphene on SiO(2). Appl Phys Lett 2007, 91:241907.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare
that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions C-H and B-JL carried on the experimental parts: the acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data. C-H also had been involved in drafting the manuscript. H-YL and C-HH analyzed and interpreted the data. They also had been involved in revising the manuscript. F-YS and W-HW (Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica) prepared the INCB028050 in vivo samples, suspended graphene using by micromechanical learn more method, and captured the OM and AFM images. C-YL have made substantial contributions MK-4827 chemical structure to the conception and design of the study and revising it critically for important intellectual content. H-CC, the corresponding author, had made substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study and had been involved in drafting the manuscript and revised it critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)  and atomic force microscopy (AFM)  have revolutionized surface sciences by enabling the study of surface topography and other surface Sitaxentan properties at the angstrom-to-micrometer scale. The three major functions of AFM include imaging, spectroscopy (i.e., force-distance curve), and manipulation (nanolithography).
AFM techniques employ a very sharp tip as a probe to scan and image surfaces. Spectroscopic information is acquired through forces generated between the tip and the sample when the probe is brought into proximity with the sample surface, according to Hooke’s law. Xie et al.  classified nanolithographic techniques into two groups: force-assisted and bias-assisted nanolithography. In AFM, the interactive force between the tip of the probe and the sample surface is determined according to the deflection of a microfabricated cantilever with the tip positioned at the free end. Modifying the probe enables researchers to explore a range of surface characteristics. AFM probes with individual microparticles or nanoparticles attached to the cantilever/tip have been widely used to measure surface forces in AFM and near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)  as the geometry and composition of the particle can be well controlled. Ducker et al. [5, 6] were pioneers in the attachment of microspheres to a tipless AFM cantilever with resin. Their colloidal probe technique employed a laser-pulled micropipette attached to an optical microscope. Mak et al.