The 26 patients were predominantly male, and the


The 26 patients were predominantly male, and the mean age at diagnosis was 33.8 years. The intraspinal HPCs were divided into 3 types and 5 subtypes. Most of them involved the neighboring segments and/or caused bony erosion. All tumors were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin and negative for epithelial membrane antigen. All patients underwent at least 1 surgery, and most of them received post-surgical radiotherapy. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier rate of survival was 76%. The 5-year recurrence-free rate of survival was 29.4%. Only the tumor pathological grade was significantly associated with survival time and recurrence.

CONCLUSION: High-grade tumors had a shorter survival time and recurred earlier than low-grade tumors. Surgical removal and postoperative radiotherapy are critical for the treatment of intraspinal HPCs. However, total resection may not necessary for these tumors. selleck chemicals Stereotactic radiosurgery may be a good alternative to control the recurrent lesions.”

analysis and quantitation of membrane proteins have proved challenging for proteomics. Although several approaches have been introduced to complement gel-based analysis of intact proteins, the literature is rather limited in comparing major emerging approaches. Peptide fractionation using IEF (OFFGel), strong cation exchange HPLC using a pH gradient (SCX-pG), and RP HPLC at high pH, have been shown to increase peptide and protein identification over classic MudPIT approaches. This article compares these three approaches for first-dimensional separation of peptides using a detergent Selleck AZD0530 phase (Triton X-114) enriched membrane fraction from mouse cortical brain tissue. Results indicate that RP at high pH (pH 10) was superior for the identification of more peptides and proteins in comparison to the OFFGel or the SCX-pG approaches. In addition, gene ontology analysis (GOMiner) revealed that RP at high pH (pH 10) successfully identified an increased number of proteins

with ‘membrane”" ontology, further medroxyprogesterone confirming its suitability for membrane protein analysis, in comparison to SCX-pG and OFFGel techniques.”
“BACKGROUND: The natural history and treatment results for spinal glomus (type II) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain relatively obscure.

OBJECTIVE: To calculate spinal glomus (type II) AVM hemorrhages rates and amalgamate results of intervention.

METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis via the PubMed database through May 2012, including studies with at least 3 cases. Data on individual patients were extracted and analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model to obtain hazard ratios for hemorrhage risk factors.

RESULTS: The annual hemorrhage rate before treatment was 4% (95% confidence interval [confidence interval]: 3%-6%), increasing to 10% (95% CI: 7%-16%) for AVMs with previous hemorrhage. The hazard ratio for hemorrhage after hemorrhagic presentation was 2.25 (95% CI: 0.71-7.

Here we explore the possible behavioural implications of these fi

Here we explore the possible behavioural implications of these findings by investigating the role displayed by acetaldehyde (the main metabolite of ethanol) and the non-metabolized fraction of ethanol in motor activity SNX-5422 of rats. We analyse the appearance of motor activation or depression after

intra-VTA administration of ethanol in rats subjected to different pharmacological pre-treatments designed to preferentially test either the effects of acetaldehyde or the non-metabolized ethanol. Motor activity was evaluated after intra-VTA administration of 35 nmol of ethanol, an apparently ineffective dose that does not modify the motor activity of animals.

Pharmacological pre-treatments were used in order to either increase (cyanamide, 10 mg/kg, ip) or decrease (D-penicillamine, 50 mg/kg, ip and sodium azide, 7 mg/kg, 3-Methyladenine chemical structure ip) acetaldehyde levels in the VTA. Pre-treatments aimed to augment acetaldehyde, increased motor activity of rats. Otherwise, pre-treatments intended to decrease local acetaldehyde levels evoked significant reductions in motor activity that were prevented by the local blockade (bicuculline, 17.5 pmol) of the GABA(A) receptors. Our findings suggest that the brain-generated acetaldehyde is involved in the stimulant effects of ethanol, whereas the non-biotransformed fraction of ethanol, acting through the

GABA(A) receptors, would account for the depressant effects. The present behavioural findings suggest that ethanol dually modulates the activity of DA neurons. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human noroviruses are one of the major causes of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world, yet our understanding of their molecular mechanisms of genome translation and replication lags behind that for many RNA viruses. Due to the nonculturable nature of human noroviruses, many related members of the Caliciviridae family AZD9291 price of small RNA viruses are often used as model systems to dissect the finer details of the norovirus life cycle. Murine norovirus (MNV) has provided one such system with which to study the basic mechanisms of norovirus translation and replication in cell culture. In this report we describe the use of riboproteomics to identify host factors that interact with the extremities of the MNV genome. This network of RNA-protein interactions contains many well-characterized host factors, including PTB, La, and DDX3, which have been shown to play a role in the life cycle of other RNA viruses. By using RNA coimmunoprecipitation, we confirmed that a number of the factors identified using riboproteomics are associated with the viral RNA during virus replication in cell culture.

No association was found for the miR-196a2 rs11614913 CT/CC genot

No association was found for the miR-196a2 rs11614913 CT/CC genotype (odds ratio (OR), 0.879, 95% confidence interval (Cl), 0.681-1.135 for CT genotype; OR, 1.085, 95% Cl, 0.793-1.484 for CC genotype) with risk of PD, compared with the TT genotype.

These results suggest that SNP rs11614913 in miRNA-196a2 may not contribute to the susceptibility to PD. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The clinical goal of tumour immunotherapy is to provide either active or passive immunity against malignancies by harnessing the immune system to target tumours. Although vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent infectious disease, it is less effective in the therapeutic setting for cancer treatment, which might be related to the low immunogenicity of tumour antigens and the reduced immunocompetence of cancer patients. Recent advances in PRN1371 manufacturer technology have led to the development of passive immunotherapy approaches that utilize the unique specificity of antibodies and T cell receptors to target selected antigens on tumour cells. These approaches are likely to benefit patients and alter the way that clinicians treat malignant disease. In this article we review recent advances in the immunotherapy of cancer, focusing on new strategies to enhance the efficacy of passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies and antigen-specific T cells.”

objective of this study was to develop a DNA sequencing assay that examines sensitively and reliably all conserved domains of the reverse transcriptase-encoding region of the HBV genome for antiviral resistance-associated mutations while simultaneously producing ample information for precise genotyping and determination of HBsAg

mutation. This assay was used to GNA12 examine 1000 de-identified HBV DNA positive samples with known viral loads from a broad-based, unselected patient population from across the United States. Of these. 946 were assayed successfully. Antiviral resistance-associated mutations were identified in 104 samples. The escape mutation sG145R in the surface antigen was identified in 0.8% of patient samples. Infections with genotypes A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H were observed in 36.6%, 19.6%, 21.7%, 13.5%, 3.6%, 0.7%, 2.2%, and 0.5% of patient samples respectively. Fifteen samples (1.6%) appeared to harbor infections with multiple genotypes as shown by the presence of double peaks throughout sequence electropherograms. The limit of detection of this assay was approximately 150 IU/mL. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Neonatal diabetes mellitus occurs in approximately 1 out of every 100,000 live births. It can be either permanent or transient, and recent studies indicate that is likely to have an underlying genetic cause, particularly when diagnosed before 6 months of age.

Specifically, we generated a replication-competent recombinant ve

Specifically, we generated a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus bearing EBOV GP as its sole entry glycoprotein and used it to select viral mutants resistant to a CatB inhibitor. We obtained mutations at six amino acid positions in GP that independently confer complete resistance. All of the mutations reside at or near the GP1-GP2 intersubunit interface in the membrane-proximal base of the prefusion GP trimer. This region forms a part of the “”clamp”" that holds the fusion subunit GP2

in its metastable prefusion conformation. Biochemical studies suggest that most of the mutations confer CatB independence not by altering specific cleavage sites in GP but rather by inducing conformational rearrangements in the prefusion

GP trimer that dramatically enhance its susceptibility to proteolysis. The remaining mutants TPCA-1 did not show the preceding behavior, indicating the existence of multiple mechanisms for acquiring CatB independence during entry. Altogether, our findings suggest that CatB cleavage is required to facilitate the triggering of viral membrane fusion by destabilizing the prefusion conformation of EBOV GP.”
“Hemianopic patients make a systematic error in line bisection, showing a contra-lesional bias towards their blind side, which is the opposite of that in hemineglect Selleck BAY 1895344 patients. This error has been attributed variously to the visual field defect, to long-term strategic adaptation, or to independent effects of damage to extrastriate cortex. To determine if hemianopic bisection error can occur without the latter two factors, Paclitaxel we studied line bisection in healthy subjects with simulated homonymous hemianopia using a gaze-contingent display, with different line-lengths, and with or without markers

at both ends of the lines. Simulated homonymous hemianopia did induce a contra-lesional bisection error and this was associated with increased fixations towards the blind field. This error was found with end-marked lines and was greater with very long lines. In a second experiment we showed that eccentric fixation alone produces a similar bisection error and eliminates the effect of line-end markers. We conclude that a homonymous hemianopic field defect alone is sufficient to induce both a contra-lesional line bisection error and previously described alterations in fixation distribution, and does not require long-term adaptation or extrastriate damage. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“One of the most characteristic features of African swine fever virus gene expression is its use of two polyproteins, pp220 and pp62, to produce several structural proteins that account for approximately 32% of the total protein virion mass. Equimolecular amounts of these proteins are the major components of the core shell, a thick protein layer that lies beneath the inner envelope, surrounding the viral nucleoid.

We report the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian female patient with

We report the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian female patient with cervical lymphadenopathy and isolated BAY 1895344 purchase pruriginous maculo-papular lesions who was diagnosed of Kikuchi’s disease in whom the presence of human herpesvirus 7 DNA was documented in the affected lymph node specimen in the absent of other viruses. Therefore, a possible etiologic relation between

the Kikuchi’s disease of this patient and human herpesvirus 7 was established, supporting a role for human herpesvirus 7 involvement in the pathogenesis.”
“Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by skin and deep organ fibrosis and obliterative microvasculopathy. Cerebral involvement is currently not recognized as a manifestation of the disease, although several morphologic and functional studies suggested a frequent cerebral involvement in systemic sclerosis. We report a new case of acute cerebral vasculopathy in a patient suffering from systemic sclerosis together with five historical cases identified through a literature review. Cerebral acute vasculopathy most often revealed the disease. Affected patients suffered often from limited or diffuse cutaneous systemic

sclerosis. Reversibility of arterial lesions, absence of specific histologic findings, and association with severe peripheral vascular involvement plead for a major role of vasospasm. However, the apparent efficacy of immunosuppressive treatments suggests an association with inflammatory or immune mechanisms. Awareness should be raised because of the severity of the disease, the risk of relapse, and the possible occurrence early in the course of systemic sclerosis.”
“We PLX3397 ic50 have investigated the prevalence of dry mouth among patients with autoimmune selleck chemicals diseases

other than Sjogren’s syndrome. One hundred and forty-four patients, excluding patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome, were enrolled in this study. The volume of saliva secreted was measured with the screening technique for estimation of salivary flow, which uses a filter paper for diagnosing dry mouth. Disturbed salivary secretion was observed in 84 (58.3 %) of the 144 patients. In the case of patients free of Sjogren’s syndrome, the prevalence of disturbed salivary secretion differed significantly among the disease groups (P < 0.05), with the prevalence being over 50 % in all disease groups other than the rheumatoid arthritis group and the highest in the systemic sclerosis group. There was significant positive correlation between the number of colored spots and oral visual analog scale score (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001). Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction, regardless of the presence/absence of complication by Sjogren’s syndrome. In the present study, the screening technique for estimation of salivary flow, which uses a filter paper for diagnosing dry mouth, was shown to be a useful means of detecting salivary gland dysfunction.

Although changes were not statistically consistent among doses, e

Although changes were not statistically consistent among doses, expression of BMP2, Nkx2.5, and GATA4 mRNA in early embryos was altered by PFOA exposure; however, protein concentrations of these targets were not markedly altered by either PFOA or WY 14,643. Protein levels of pSMAD1/5, a transcriptional regulator stimulated

by BMPs, were altered by both PFOA and WY 14,643, but this website in different directions; PFOA reduced cytoplasmic pSMAD1/5, whereas WY 14,643 decreased nuclear pSMAD1/5. Taken together, these data suggest that developmental cardiotoxicity induced by PFOA likely involves both PPAR and BMP2 pathways.”
“Visual motion processing and its use for pursuit eye movement control represent a valuable model for studying the use of sensory input for action planning. In psychotic disorders, alterations

of visual motion perception have been suggested to cause pursuit eye tracking deficits. We evaluated this system in functional neuroimaging studies of untreated first-episode schizophrenia (N=24), psychotic bipolar disorder patients (N=13) and healthy controls (N=20). During AC220 in vivo a passive visual motion processing task, both patient groups showed reduced activation in the posterior parietal projection fields of motion-sensitive extrastriate area V5, but not in V5 itself. This suggests reduced bottom-up transfer of visual motion information from extrastriate cortex to perceptual systems in parietal association cortex. During active pursuit, activation was enhanced in 4��8C anterior intraparietal sulcus and insula in both patient groups, and in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial thalamus in schizophrenia patients. This may result from increased demands on sensorimotor systems for pursuit control due to the limited availability of perceptual motion information about target speed and tracking error. Visual motion information transfer deficits to higher-level association cortex may contribute to well-established

pursuit tracking abnormalities, and perhaps to a wider array of alterations in perception and action planning in psychotic disorders. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Exposure to wet aerosols generated during use of spray products containing silver (Ag) has not been evaluated. The goal was to assess the potential for cardiopulmonary toxicity following an acute inhalation of wet silver colloid. Rats were exposed by inhalation to a low concentration (100 g/m(3) ) using an undiluted commercial antimicrobial product (20 mg/L total silver; approximately 33 nm mean aerodynamic diameter [MAD]) or to a higher concentration (1000 g/m(3)) using a suspension (200 mg/L total silver; approximately 39 nm MAD) synthesized to possess a similar size distribution of Ag nanoparticles for 5 h. Estimated lung burdens from deposition models were 0, 1.

coli This study Isolation of DNA Chromosomal DNA for PCR reactio

coli. This study Isolation of DNA Chromosomal DNA for PCR reactions was prepared from bacterial cultures by resuspending a small amount of cells in 5:l 1 M NaOH. The solution was neutralized by adding 5:l of 0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 7.5). The suspension was further diluted in 90:l of purified water, and 1:l of this solution was used as a

template for PCR. Plasmid DNA isolations were carried out according to the alkaline lysis procedure [26]. PCR Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed using various enzyme systems, based either on Taq or Pfu polymerases using chromosomal or plasmid DNA as a template. The primers used for various PCR reactions are described in Table 3. Amplification conditions were generally find more 41 cycles, using an annealing temperature 5°C lower than the Tm for the primer and extension times of 1-5 min. All PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis.

Table 3 Primers used in these studies Primer Name Primer Sequence NP1 AAAGGATCCCATGAACGCGGATTGCAGACG NP2 GGGGGATCCAGAAGATACCATACGCCTCT S1 GAGATGGGTAAAATCCGGGT S2 CGAACCGGATGCCGTAGAA learn more dwnstrm-F AAAATGTACAATTTGCCGGGCGGCAGCCTGC dwnstrm-R AAAATGTACAGGCGTTATCTCGCTCCCGGCG Omega-ABC TCAGATGGCGCGCCTGTACATCGATGGTGATTGATTGACGAAGCTTTATGC NfsB-BsmI-3F GTTTAGGGCGCATTCAAGAACCGCAAATCGTGCCGGC NfsB-BsmI-2R GCGGTTCTTGAATGCGGATAGAACCTGCTCTTTGCTTAA DNA sequence analysis DNA sequencing was performed by Macrogen, Inc. (Seoul, Kr.) or the DNA sequencing facility at the Center for Biosystems research at the University of Maryland. All nfsB sequences were obtained using Primers S1 and S2. Molecular check details biology procedures All procedures were performed using methods described in Sambrook et al. [27]. When biological reagents were used, they were used under the conditions described by their manufacturer. Restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase, polynucleotide kinase and appropriate buffers were obtained Adenosine triphosphate from New England Biolabs (Beverly, MA). S1 nuclease was obtained from Promega (Madison, WI). DNA samples were analyzed on agarose gels (0.8-1.0%) in TBE buffer

[27]. Genetic procedures Transformation-competent E. coli cells (strain DH5α-mcr) were prepared using the procedure of Inuoe [28], and stored at -80°C. To prepare cells for transformation, cells were thawed on ice, DNA added and the mixture incubated on ice for 10 min. The bacteria were heat-shocked at 37°C for 2 min., the total volume in the tube was increased to 1 ml by adding LB broth and the transformation mixture incubated at 37°C for 30 min. to 1 hr. to allow the bacteria to recover and begin expressing antibiotic-resistance proteins. Transformed bacteria were plated onto LB agar plates containing appropriate antibiotics and, if necessary, X-gal. For transformation of N. gonorrhoeae, piliated bacteria were resuspended to light turbidity in 1 ml GCK+ 10 mM MgCl2 + Kellogg’s supplement + 0.42% NaHCO3.

Furthermore, L pneumophila in stationary phase also displays sho

Furthermore, L. pneumophila in stationary phase also displays shortened cell body, flagellin expression, pigment accumulation and reduced sodium sensitivity. These attributes, together with virulence markers such as cytotoxicity, intracellular growth and phagocytosis, are recognized as the transmission traits of L. pneumophila [11, 13]. On the other hand, the in vitro-cultured stationary-phase L. pneumophila can achieve further differentiation to the cyst-like, Dibutyryl-cAMP molecular weight hyper-infectious and resilient mature intracellular

form (MIF) in aquatic environment or in specific mammalian cell lines. MIF is considered as an “”in vivo stationary-phase form”" while owning different outer membrane structure and protein composition compared with the stationary-phase form [14, 15]. In addition, an in vivo transcriptome of L. pneumophila was performed and exhibited the genes strongly induced in intracellular replicative or transmissive phase, respectively, which also LY2874455 datasheet revealed several virulence or transmission related genes specially induced intracellularly, confirming the dissimilarity between the in vitro- and in vivo- transmissive/stationary phase [16]. A complicated gene network has been implicated in

the regulation of transmission traits in L. pneumophila. For example, the sigma factor RpoS, the two-component system LetA/LetS, and the quorum sensing regulator LqsR have all been shown to facilitate the expression of transmission traits [10, 11, 13, 17, 18]. CsrA, a global repressor of transmission [19],

also appears to be tightly regulated by several factors NVP-BGJ398 in vivo such as PmrA (positive regulator of several Dot/Icm-translocated effector proteins) and rsmYZ (two non-coding RNAs) [20, 21]. In addition, CpxR has been found to activate transcription of several genes encoding components of the Dot/Icm complex Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) as well as several Dot/Icm-translocated effectors [22, 23]. The concerted action of these regulators not only contributes to the display of transmission traits, but also plays a vital role in the re-entry into the replicative phase [11, 13, 19, 20, 24]. Proteolysis of detrimental and misfolded proteins is critically important for protein quality control and cellular homeostasis [25–27]. Four classes of energy-dependent protease systems have been identified throughout prokaryotes: ClpAP/XP, ClpYQ (also named HslUV), FtsH and Lon. ClpP and ClpQ, the catalytic cores of the proteases, require Clp ATPase chaperones for the recognition and unfolding of substrates; on the other hand, in FtsH and Lon, a single polypeptide contains both ATPase and proteolytic activity [26, 28]. The ClpP protease and Clp ATPase, which are widely distributed and highly conserved in various bacteria species as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells [27, 29, 30], have been demonstrated to function in the regulation of stress response, sporulation and cell division [31, 32].

1; Homo sapiens (alpha isoform 2), NP_005339 Acknowledgements Th

1; Homo sapiens (alpha isoform 2), NP_005339. Acknowledgements This investigation was supported by the Dean of Medicine University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, UPR, and partially by the MBRS-RISE Program Grant R25GM061838. RGM acknowledges funding through NIH NIGMS grant T36GM008789-05 and acknowledges the use of the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center National Resource for Biomedical Supercomputing resources funded through NIH NCRR grant 2 P41 RR06009-16A1. The authors wish to acknowledge Dr.

Roman Velez and the Department of Pathology, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico for allowing us to use their microscope. We also wish to acknowledge the Fungal Genetic Stock Center for supplying us pSD2G. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: DNA and Amino acid sequence SSDCL-1. The partial DNA and derived Selleckchem SRT2104 amino acid sequence of the ssdcl-1 gene. Non-coding regions

are given in lower case letters, coding regions and amino acids are given in upper case letters. The helicase domain is shadowed in yellow, the dsRNA binding domain is shadowed in blue green and the RNAse 3 domain is shadowed in gray. The putative intron is given in lower case red letters. (PDF 31 KB) Additional file 2: Amino acid sequence alignments of SSDCL-1 to other fungal DCL-1 homologues. The predicted amino acid sequence of S. schenckii SSDCL-1 and DCL-1 homologues from find more other fungi were aligned using M-Coffee. In the alignment, black shading with white letters indicates 100% identity, gray shading with white letters indicates 75-99% identity, gray shading with black letters indicates 50-74% identity. Important domains are highlighted in colored boxes. The helicase domain, dsRNA binding domain and the RNAse III domains are highlighted in green, red and blue boxes, respectively. (PDF 166 KB) Additional File 3: pSD2G, sscmk1 inserts and colony PCR. This file shows pSD2G (pSD2G) from the Fungal Genetic Stock Center. It has a geneticin resistance cassette and two trpC promoters flanking the multiple cloning site (MCS). File 3A and 3B show the nucleotide sequences of the sscmk1 gene inserted into

pSD2G: a 405 bp insert from the 3′ EPZ5676 molecular weight region and a 432 bp insert from the 5′ region of the gene. These inserts were amplified Farnesyltransferase by PCR from cDNA containing the coding sequence of the sscmk1 gene, cloned in pCR ® 2.1-TOPO, excised by digestion with restriction enzymes and cloned in the MCS of pSD2G to produce pSD2G-RNAi1 and pSD2G-RNAi2, respectively. File 3C Shows the results of the colony PCR of various S. schenckii transformants. Cell suspensions of S. schenckii transformants were used as templates for PCR using the G418 (for)/G418 (rev) primer pair as described in Methods. Lane 4 shows the 123 bp DNA ladder. Lanes 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 shows the bands obtained when the cells transformed with pSD2G-RNAi1 from colonies 14, 15, 18, 19 and 21 were used as template, respectively.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2008, 5:-1 112 Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, G

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2008, 5:-1. 112. Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schulze KE, Trappe SW: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ingestion, Part I: effects on strength and fat free mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000,32(12):2109–15.PubMedCrossRef 113. Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schulze KE, Trappe SW: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ingestion, part II: effects on hematology, hepatic and renal function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000,32(12):2116–9.PubMedCrossRef 114. Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M: Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during FHPI molecular weight resistance exercise

testing. J Am Physiol 1996, 81:2095–104. 115. Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, Baier S, Nissen S: Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (hmb) during resistance training. click here Nutrition 2000,16(9):734–9.PubMedCrossRef 116. Slater GJ, Jenkins D: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate

(HMB) supplementation and the promotion of muscle growth and strength. Sports Med 2000,30(2):105–16.PubMedCrossRef 117. Vukovich MD, Stubbs NB, Bohlken RM: Body composition in 70-year-old adults responds to dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate similarly to that of young adults. J Nutr 2001,131(7):2049–52.PubMed 118. Knitter AE, Panton L, Rathmacher JA, Petersen A, Sharp R: Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle damage after a prolonged run. J Appl Physiol 2000,89(4):1340–4.PubMed 119. Smith HJ, Wyke SM, Tisdale MJ: Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein Glutathione peroxidase degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Cancer Res 2004,64(23):8731–5.PubMedCrossRef 120. Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, Sacharuk J, Zieniewicz A, Wilczak J, Nissen S: Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001,17(7–8):558–66.PubMedCrossRef 121. O’Connor DM, Crowe MJ: Effects

of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of highly trained athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003,43(1):64–8.PubMed 122. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Almada AL: Effects of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance-training on markers of catabolism, body composition and strength. Int J Sports Med 1999,20(8):503–9.PubMedCrossRef 123. Slater G, Jenkins D, Logan P, Lee H, Vukovich M, Rathmacher JA, Hahn AG: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001,11(3):384–96.PubMed 124. Ransone J, Neighbors K, Lefavi R, Chromiak J: The effect of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on muscular strength and body composition in collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res 2003,17(1):34–9.PubMed 125.