However, aortic plaques in simvastatin treated chronic kidney dis

However, aortic plaques in simvastatin treated chronic kidney disease mice showed significantly less calcification than those in controls with chronic kidney disease (p<0.03). In addition, the increase of aortic nitrotyrosine staining in mice with chronic kidney disease was prevented by simvastatin treatment (p<0.02). Serum total cholesterol was increased to a similar extent in the 2 chronic kidney disease groups compared with that in the nonchronic kidney disease groups. The beneficial effect of simvastatin

on uremia enhanced vascular calcification in apoE(-/-) mice with chronic kidney disease was observed despite the absence of changes in uremia accelerated atherosclerosis progression, serum total cholesterol levels or osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase expression.

Conclusions: Our observation opens the possibility of a cholesterol independent action click here of statins on vascular calcification via a decrease in

oxidative stress.”
“Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted major and minor mode melodies controlled for liking to study the neural basis of musical mode perception. To examine the influence of the larger dissonance in minor melodies on neural activation differences, we further introduced a strongly see more dissonant stimulus, in the form of a chromatic scale. Minor mode melodies were evaluated as sadder than major melodies, and in comparison they caused increased activity in limbic structures, namely left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral ventral anterior cingulate, and in

left medial prefrontal cortex. Dissonance explained some, but not all, of the heightened activity in the limbic structures when listening to minor mode music.”
“We employ three-photon microscopy to produce a high-resolution map of serotonin autofluorescence in a rat midbrain section (covering more than half of the brain), to quantitatively characterize serotonin distribution and release in different areas of a live brain slice. The map consists PF299804 of a tiling of similar to 160 contiguous optical images (covering an area of similar to 27 mm(2) with sub-mu m resolution in 20 min), and is recorded before and after inducing depolarization. We observe that the total serotorin exocytosed from the somata in the raphe is quantitatively comparable with regions containing a high density of serotonergic processes. Our results demonstrate that high-resolution, wide-area, dynamic neurotransmitter mapping is now possible.”
“We examined whether different itch signals converge on the same dorsal horn neurons in mice. Intradermal injections of histamine and SLIGRL-NH2 (protease-activated receptor-2 agonist) induced scratching in naive mice and so did mosquito allergen in sensitized mice. These stimuli induced Fos expression in cells in the superficial dorsal horn.

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