Summary of Background Data There is controversy with regard to t

Summary of Background Data. There is controversy with regard to the anatomic and histological makeup of the uncovertebral interface with some authors considering it a joint and others disc tissue. No research has

investigated the presence of pain generating neurotransmitters within the uncovertebral cartilaginous and capsular tissue.

Methods. Tissue from uncovertebral capsule and cartilage was harvested for each uncovertebral surface starting at the C2-C3 to the C6-C7 cervical segment. The tissue was placed in 4% paraformaldehyde fixative, then dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Ten micron sections were cut through the tissue blocks and mounted on slides. The tissue was rehydrated and either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) or HIF inhibitor immunostained with antisera against protein gene product 9.5

(PGP 9.5), substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP).

Results. The sample consisted of 2 unembalmed fresh male human cadavers of a mean age of 83 years. Chondrocytes and synoviocytes AZD6244 manufacturer were identified at the capsular tissue of each uncovertebral interface from C2-C3-C6-C7. Immunoreactivity for PGP 9.5, SP, CGRP, and NPY was observed at all uncovertebral interface levels in capsular tissue.

Conclusion. The presence of both synoviocytes and chondrocytes has been recorded in the present study, suggesting that the uncovertebral interface is synovial in nature. Immunoreactivity to PGP 9.5, SP, CGRP, and NPY indicates the presence of nerve fibers from both the so matic and autonomic nervous

systems. These findings suggest that the uncovertebral joints are potential pain generators in the cervical spine.”
“Abnormalities selleck in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.”
“Purpose: Numerous studies have identified several factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. However, studies on gender differences in cancer-related physical symptoms and QOL levels have yielded inconsistent results. The present study examined common symptoms (i.e., pain intensity, fatigue, and depression) in regard to their ability to predict QOL in male and female oncology patients with cancer pain.

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