In biochemical analyses, the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and H(2)O(2) increased significantly at 1 h, indicating MC-caused oxidative stress. Finally, H(2)O(2) decreased to the normal levels, while MDA remained at high levels. The antioxidative enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) and antioxidants (GSH) also increased rapidly at 1 h, demonstrating a quick response of the defense systems to the oxidative stress. Finally, the activity of CAT, SOD, and GPX recovered to
the CFTR inhibitor normal level, while the activity of GST and the concentration of GSH remained at a high level. This suggests that the importance of MCs detoxification by GST via GSH, and the testis of rabbit contained abundant GSH. The final recovery of ultrastructure and some biochemical indexes indicates that the defense systems finally succeeded in protecting the testis against oxidative damage. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MCs are toxic to the male rabbit reproductive system and the mechanism underlying this toxicity might to be the oxidative stress caused by MCs. Although the negative effects of
MCs can be overcome by the antioxidant system of testis in this study, the potential reproductive risks of l should not be neglected because of their wide occurrence. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 9-17. 2010.”
“The increasing detection of adrenal tumors and the availability of a more sophisticated biochemical work-up leading to rising numbers of sub-clinical Conn’s and Cushing’s syndromes coincide with a rising number of adrenalectomies worldwide. The aim of our study was to report a single institution’s click here experience with adrenal surgery.
We report data of 528 adrenalectomies, operated at our institution before and after the onset of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (1986-1994, 1995-2008). Gender, age, indication, imaging, surgical approach, operating time, histology, tumor size, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed retrospectively.
A total of 478 patients underwent adrenal surgery during the time observed. The average number of yearly adrenalectomies increased from 14 to 21 (p = 0.001)
after the onset of laparoscopic surgery. Imaging techniques showed a significant shift towards magnetic resonance imaging (p < 0.001) Crenigacestat order and preoperative assessment of tumor size was significantly correlated to malignancy: 10.8 % (11/102) and 42 % (21/50) of tumors measuring 4-6 cm and a parts per thousand yen6 cm, respectively, were malignant in the final histology report (p < 0.001). Patients operated by minimally invasive endoscopy were significantly younger (mean 49.4 years, p = 0.046), had significantly shorter operating times (mean 118 min, p < 0.001), had shorter hospital stays (mean 7.1 days, p < 0.001), and had less complications (6.9 %, p = 0.004) compared to patients resected through open procedures.