1-23.0 mg/L. When compared with public water sources, this mineral content is relatively high, though it is not uncommon for unfiltered glacier water melt. Indeed, AK water is one of several product lines from the same company which has sole bottling rights to the runoff from the Carbon Glacier on Mt. Rainier, WA. In addition to these natural minerals, AK water also contains an unknown amount of Alka-PlexLiquid™, a proprietary blend of mineral-based alkalizing agents said to be the active ingredient responsible for the water’s unusually selleck products high pH of 10.0, as well as the previously reported enhanced rate of absorption and retention of water
in the body . The placebo water used for this study was Aquafina (PepsiCo Inc., Purchase, NY USA), a bottled water brand that is commonly available throughout the U.S. The bottlers of Aquafina use numerous public water sources across the U.S. and a trademarked purification process called HydRO-7™ that is said to remove all measureable traces of any particles that can influence water taste, including naturally occurring minerals. In fact, according to the Aquafina label, this purification process results in water that contains no significant minerals or electrolytes
whatsoever. Thus, this LY3023414 solubility dmso particular bottled water is well suited to serve as a placebo for the present study. Both placebo and AK bottled waters were shipped directly to the testing lab from their respective bottling facilities in previously unopened bottles. The contents of these bottles learn more were emptied directly into the water storage drums used daily by the participating subjects as described previously. Using freshly opened bottles of water and the measurement procedures described below, the placebo and AK waters were measured at respective pH values of 7.0 and 10.0,
while the osmolality for both waters was zero mOsm/kg. As a reference, a sample of distilled water had a pH of 7.0 and osmolality of zero mOsm/kg. Instrumentation Osmolality and pH Each urine and fingertip blood sample was evaluated for osmolality using the Model 3320 Micro-Osmometer (Advanced Instruments, Inc., Norwood, MA USA) to the nearest whole unit in mOsm/kg H20. The osmometer was calibrated daily using Teicoplanin standards of 50 to 2000 mOsm/kg as suggested by the manufacturer. In addition, this particular osmometer required only 20 μl to provide a valid measurement, which includes the measurements of whole blood, with an accuracy of ± 2 mOsm/kg within the 0-400 mOsm/kg range. The pH for the same urine and fingertip blood samples were determined using a Sentrol LanceFET pH Probe and Argus hand-held ISFET Ph meter (Topac Inc., Cohasset, MA USA). The pH probe had a range of 0-14 and a reported accuracy of ± 0.01 units while requiring only 20 μl for a valid measurement.