These patients were using more self-management techniques compare

These patients were using more self-management techniques compared selleck compound to patients with COPD and patients with musculoskeletal pain who showed improvements in 2 out of 8 domains. Where improvement occurred

most of the effect sizes were small. It has been argued that modest effects have public health significance when experienced on a population level [34]. Patients with depression had lower self-management scores at baseline compared to patients with the other three conditions and so had more opportunity to improve. Recent evaluations of the Stanford University, lay-led, Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme has shown improvements in depression and other health outcomes for people living with serious mental health conditions [39] and [40]. The finding that self-management

programs can benefit patients with depression and other serious mental health conditions is noteworthy. Mental ill health accounts for 13% of all lost years of healthy life globally, rising to 23% in high-income countries [41] and [42]. For most of the heiQ domains approximately a quarter of patients made substantial improvements, the Nutlin-3a supplier exception being in skill and technique acquisition where more than a third reported substantial improvement. This is lower than reported by LTC patients in Australia, which showed that one third of patients showed substantial improvement in the majority of the heiQ domains [28]. The difference could be explained by the fact that Australian data were collected at post-course whereas our data were collected at 6 months follow-up and there may be some attenuation of effects. The questionnaire return rate at 6 months is lower than we have achieved in other self-management evaluations (e.g. 83% [34] and 80% [43]). Atezolizumab in vitro We are unsure as to the exact reasons why this lower rate occurred and can only speculate that the pragmatic, real world design of the study, where greater emphasis and importance were afforded to implementation and delivery of the interventions rather than to the recruitment and retention of patients in the evaluation,

could have impacted on this. The main analyses on SMP completers (attended ≥5 sessions) present the most favourable estimation of outcomes as it focuses only on those patients who received a high dose of the SMP and completed baseline and 6 month follow-up questionnaires. ITT analysis showed similar improvements at 6 month follow-up, but were of a smaller magnitude. The biggest limitation is the lack of a control group, which means that there are alternative explanations for the improvements reported by patients completing the SMP. However, the size of improvements is generally consistent with randomized controlled trials of SMPs which are similar in process and content [9], [28], [34], [43] and [44].

XT2i (SMS, Surrey, England) The tensile strength (TS) and elonga

XT2i (SMS, Surrey, England). The tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (E) were obtained according to the ASTM D882-95 method ( ASTM, 1995). Films were cut into strips with a width of 0.6 cm and a length of 10 cm. The initial grip spacing and cross-head speed were 8 cm and 1.0 mm/s, respectively. The tensile strength (TS) was calculated as the maximum force at break divided by the initial cross-sectional area (thickness of film × 0.6 cm) of the initial film. Elongation at break BAY 73-4506 supplier (E) was calculated as the percentile

of the change in the length of the specimen with respect to the original distance between the grips (8 cm). Young’s modulus (YM) was calculated from the initial slope of the stress–strain curve using Texture Expert version 1.22 (SMS). The solubility in water was computed as the percentage of dry matter of the solubilized film after immersion in water at 25 ± 2 °C for 24 h (Gontard, Guilbert, & Cuq, 1992). Film discs (diameter = 2 cm) were cut, weighed, immersed in 50 mL of distilled water, and slowly and periodically agitated. The moisture content of the films was determined gravimetrically by placing the samples in an oven at 105 °C for 24 h. The water

vapor permeability (WVP) test was conducted by using a modified ASTM E96-95 (ASTM, 1995) method at selleck kinase inhibitor 25 ± 2 °C. Film samples were sealed over the circular opening of a permeation cell containing silica gel. The cells were then placed in desiccators containing distilled water. The weight gain of the cells was monitored every 24 h, for 7 days. Initially, the film samples were placed in chambers containing silica gel, which allowed for determination of the water vapor

absorption isotherms. Film specimens (approximately 500 mg), in triplicate, were placed in hermetic chambers containing oversaturated salt solutions of LiCl (aw 0.111), MgCl2·6H2O (aw 0.328), K2CO3 (aw 0.432), NaBr (aw 0.577), NaNO2 (aw 0.642), NaCl (aw 0.757), Diflunisal KCl (aw 0.843), and BaCl2 (aw 0.904) at 25 ± 2 °C for 3 weeks, which was the time period required for equilibrium to be reached. The equilibrium moisture content was determined by drying the samples to constant weight in a vacuum oven at 70 °C. The Guggenheim–Anderson–De Boer (GAB) model was used to represent the experimental equilibrium data. The GAB model follows the formula ( Bizot, 1984) equation(1) M=mo·C·K·aw(1−K·aw)·(1−K·aw+C·K·aw),where M is the equilibrium moisture content (g water/g db) at a water activity (aw), mo is the monolayer value (g water/g db), and C and K are the GAB constants. The surface response methodology was employed for evaluation of the effect of the drying temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on the mechanical properties, solubility, water vapor permeability, moisture content, and drying time of the films.

In case of Hamburg, climatically induced changes have to be combi

In case of Hamburg, climatically induced changes have to be combined with other changes, which may result from further modifications of the Elbe estuary (see Section 2). BYL719 order An important facet of these scenarios is the perspective of different time horizons, which will be associated with different geophysical changes. While not quantifiable, it is clear that also the uncertainty of future projections will be diminishing. A scenario for a certain time window constructed with the knowledge of 2030 will be less uncertain than a scenario

for the same time window constructed with the knowledge available in 2010. Natural science is generating knowledge about the sensitivity of coastal processes to natural and human influences and about possible pathways of future developments. However, transforming these insights into Francis Bacon’s knowledge, scientia est potentia = capacity to set something in motion ( Stehr, 2012), needs more than just “good science”. When it comes to decisions, the role of science Vemurafenib cost diminishes, and the responsibility is with stakeholders representing political, economic or social interests. Decisions are not scientific,

but follow power structures, political and economic priorities and societal developments. Scientifically produced decision support systems can support decisions by providing specific sets of information and supply evidence-based decision support. Decisions themselves are in most cases normative and interest driven. When scientific actors try to interact with stakeholders, including media and public at large, they often follow

simplistic worldviews – in particular the “linear model” according to which scientifically constructed knowledge is superior und “true” (van der Sluijs, 2010). Therefore, in this naïve view, science is legitimized in determining what is a “right” or a “wrong” decision. The other model is that of the “empty vessel”, according to which stakeholders and public are simply uneducated and do not understand (like small children). Thus, they need to be taught by scientists. As soon as these so far uneducated people understand the considered system, they will opt for the “right” decision. Philosophy of science informs us that Chlormezanone science is not providing “truth” but “best explanations” for the time being, consistent with empirical evidence and with generally accepted theories (e.g., Fleck, 1980). Attempting falsification is important, because it represents a permanent testing if an explanation is still the “best” for the time being. According to social science models like the linear one or the empty vessel are not realistically describing social reality. Stakeholders hold their own knowledge, which often enough is not really science-based but rooted in cultural constructions or economic or political interests (von Storch and Stehr, 2014).

Overall, the term most likely to be used by students in a consult

Overall, the term most likely to be used by students in a consultation when defining a client’s bodyweight was your weight may be damaging your

health (67.6%) followed by you are an unhealthy weight (8.9%) ( Table 1). The majority of participants preferred to use a euphemism than the term obese or obesity (87.7% vs. 3.6%). There was no significant student group effect on preference for euphemisms. A minority of participants (8.5%) were unsure as to which term they would be most likely to use ( Table 1). Just under half the participants (48.8%) agreed or strongly agreed that a member of their profession should ‘always raise Pexidartinib mw the issue of a person’s obesity, even if the client is consulting about an unrelated health issue’. By contrast, 14.9% agreed or strongly agreed that that a member of their profession should ‘only discuss a person’s obesity if

the client raises the issue themselves’, and 34.9% agreed or strongly agreed that that a member of their profession should ‘only discuss a person’s obesity if s/he has first established that the client wishes to do so’. There were significant student group effects for each of the three statements (p < .001). Post hoc Chi-square analyses revealed that medical students were more likely to agree that a doctor should ‘always raise the issue’ and less likely to agree that doctor should ‘only discuss a person's obesity if s/he has first established that the client wishes to do so’, compared to all other student groups (p < .008). In addition, Nursing BSc students MDV3100 more likely to agree that a nurse should ‘only discuss a person’s obesity if the client raises the issue themselves’, compared to medical students (p < .008) and dieticians (p = .009).

Just over half the participants felt confident or very confident Carbohydrate about discussing obesity with clients (n = 603, 58.2%). There was a significant student group effect (p < .01). Although trainee dieticians were more confident than all other student groups (p < .05), these differences were not significant using the Bonferroni corrected alpha of .008. The vast majority of participants felt that that more training on how to discuss obesity with clients would be either useful or essential (n = 985, 95.1%). Analysis of student group effect on training requirements was prevented by too few numbers in categories. The current study revealed that UK trainee HCPs’ preferred terms when raising the issue of obesity with clients were BMI, weight and unhealthy BMI which broadly reflects ratings of physicians and obese people in the US [22], [23] and [24]. The current findings are also similar to previous research in that participants’ least favored term was fatness [22], [23] and [24] whilst the term obesity was considered to be ‘neutral’ to ‘undesirable’ [22], [23] and [24]. Students, therefore, appear to appreciate that, although medically appropriate, the term obesity has come to have, for some, a negative social meaning by implying a sense of disgust [54].

They were kept at room temperature without any stress after the a

They were kept at room temperature without any stress after the administration of DMSO. The stomach of each animal was processed for MSA, which was allowed to react with the fast blue BB salt to yield a yellow product. This was measured spectrophotometrically at 425 nm using benzenesulfonic acid as standard. Values obtained were expressed as nmol

of °OH generated per g of stomach. XO activity of the rat gastric tissue was assayed by measuring the conversion of xanthine to uric acid [19]. Briefly, the weighed amount of gastric tissue was homogenized in cold (10%) in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.8. The homogenates were centrifuged check details at 500 g for 10 min. The resulting supernatant was further centrifuged at 12,000 g for 20 min in cold.

The supernatant, thus obtained, was collected and used for spectrophotometric assay of the enzyme at 295 nm using 0.1 mM xanthine in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.8, as the substrate. The enzyme activity was expressed as milli units/min/mg tissue protein. The activity of XDH was measured by following the reduction of NAD+ to NADH according to the method of [42]. In brief, the weighed amount of rat gastric tissue was homogenized in cold (10%) in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.2. The homogenates were centrifuged in cold at 500 g for 10 min. The supernatant, thus obtained, was further centrifuged in cold at 12,000 g for 20 min. The final supernatant was used as the source of the enzyme, and the activity of the enzyme was measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm with 0.3 mM xanthine Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library high throughput as the substrate (in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.5) and 0.7 mM NAD+ as an electron donor. The enzyme activity was expressed as milli units/min/mg tissue protein. The weighed amount of rat gastric tissue was homogenized (10%) in ice-cold 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 with a Potter Elvenjem glass homogenizer (Belco Glass Inc., Vineland, NJ, USA) for 30 s. The homogenates were then centrifuged at 500 g for 10 min. The supernatant, thus obtained, was again centrifuged at 12,000 g Carnitine dehydrogenase for 15 min to obtain a

pellet containing mitochondria. This pellet was again suspended in the buffer and used for measuring the activities of the mitochondrial enzymes. The PDH activity was measured spectrophotometrically [14] with some modifications by following the reduction of NAD+ to NADH at 340 nm using 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.5 mM sodium pyruvate as the substrate and 0.5 mM NAD+ in addition to the enzyme. The enzyme activity was expressed as units/min/mg tissue protein. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity was determined by measuring the reduction of NAD+ to NADH at 340 nm with the help of a UV–VIS spectrophotometer [16]. One ml assay volume contained 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.5 mM isocitrate, 0.1 mM MnSO4, 0.1 mM NAD+ and the suitable amount of enzyme.

The salinity data from mid-water and bottom

depth at stat

The salinity data from mid-water and bottom

depth at station M5 and the surface salinity at station M3 were low-passed using the 34-h Lanczos filter to obtain the sub-tidal record. As for other datasets, the Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (CBNERR) measured surface salinity at two stations, Taskinas Creek and Clay Bank in the York River (YR), VA. During Hurricane Isabel, salinity was measured by YSI-6600 Sondes operated by CBNERR at fixed stations at Sweet Hall, Taskinas Creek, Clay Bank, and Goodwin Islands in the YR. Meteorological data were collected from a total of 13 stations around CB operated Dinaciclib by NOAA and the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). Typically, wind data were taken at a height of 10 m above mean sea level (MSL) and atmospheric pressures were observed at MSL. River stream flow data from CB tributaries were obtained from the US Geological Survey (USGS) for both hurricanes (Table 3). The baroclinic circulation in CB was

performed using the semi-implicit Eulerian–Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE) model, a free surface hydrostatic, three-dimensional learn more cross-scale circulation model on unstructured grids (Zhang and Baptista, 2008, Liu et al., 2008a, Liu et al., 2008b and Burla et al., 2010). SELFE uses a semi-implicit Galerkin finite-element method for the pressure gradient and the vertical viscosity terms, which are treated implicitly, and for other terms treated explicitly. To solve the vertical velocity, a finite-volume method is applied to a typical prism, because it serves as a diagnostic variable for local volume conservation when a steep slope is present (Zhang et al., 2004). SELFE treats the advection in

the transport equations with the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. A higher-order finite-volume TVD scheme is a preferable option in SELFE. TVD is the technique of obtaining high-resolution, second-order, oscillation-free, explicit scalar difference unless schemes by the addition of a limited anti-diffusive flux to a first-order scheme (Sweby, 1984). Osher (1984) defined the flux differences for a general three-point E-scheme, which is a class of semi-discrete schemes approximating the scalar conservation law. These flux differences are used to define a series of local Courant–Friedrichs–Levy (CFL) numbers. Superbee (Roe, 1986) is used as a flux limiting function. SELFE adapts the Generic Length Scale (GLS) turbulence closure through the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) suggested by Umlauf and Burchard, 2003 and Umlauf and Burchard, 2005, taking advantages from a number of level 2.5 closure schemes such as k–ε ( Rodi, 1984), k–ω ( Wilcox, 1998); Mellor and Yamada scheme ( Mellor and Yamada, 1982). In this study, the k–ε scheme is used. The horizontal grid used is shown in Fig. 3. This grid has 20,784 elements, 11,582 nodes, and 32,386 sides on the surface. At least three horizontal grid cells resolve the channel of the main Bay.

2B) Rewards depended upon saccadic reaction time (SRT), accordin

2B). Rewards depended upon saccadic reaction time (SRT), according to an exponential discounting function; Fig. 3C). Saccades made before green onset were penalized with a small, flat penalty. Because saccades take ∼200 msec to initiate, any highly rewarded responses (latencies < 200 msec) have to be programmed before green onset. selleck Thus to maximize outcome, subjects needed to make a decision about whether to initiate a response before the green light – and potentially obtain a high reward, but risk a penalty – or simply wait for the green light when they will receive a low reward. Participants were instructed to make as much money as possible. They performed ten blocks of fifty trials.

Reward (in pence) was calculated from acquiring the target using a decay function: R=ae−(t−t0k1)a = 150, k1 = 100 and t − t0 represents RT from green onset (msec). Saccades made in advance of “GO!” were punished by a fixed fine of 10p. Rewards were displayed at the target site on each trial and a cumulative total was

shown below this. Aural feedback was also given with a ‘ping’ for rewards of 0–19p, and a ‘ker-ching’ for rewards of 20p or more. An error trial was accompanied by a low pitched ‘beep’ in addition to a visual cue: “STOP Police! Fine £0.10”. Eye position was recorded using an EyeLink 1000 Hz eye tracker (SR Research Ltd, Ontario, Canada). Stimuli were displayed on a 22ʺ CRT monitor (150 Hz) at 60 cm. It is not possible to establish definitively for any individual saccade whether it arose from an anticipatory or a reactive process. Because humans take ∼200 msec to Cyclopamine manufacturer plan and execute saccades, ‘reactive’ saccades – those made in response to green onset – are expected to Hydroxychloroquine concentration have latencies of this order. Very early saccades (say < 50 msec after green onset) are likely to have been ‘anticipatory’, planned prior to green onset. However, there is a grey zone between these extremes. We used an established method to decide how many of the saccades were statistically most likely to arise from each distribution,

modelled by a linear rise-to-threshold process ( Carpenter and Williams, 1995). We assumed two processes, one triggered by the amber light and the other by the green. Thus, the distribution of reactive saccades is described by a rapid rise-to-threshold process elicited by green onset. Whereas anticipatory saccades are described by a slower and independent rise-to-threshold process triggered by amber onset. A saccade is generated by whichever process reaches threshold first ( Adam et al., 2012). Maximum likelihood estimation provided best-fitting mean and variance parameters for each distribution. For controls, the model estimated a mean for the reactive distribution of 299 msec, SD 31 msec. We used a ‘cut off’ maximum saccadic RT of 200 msec, >3 SDs from this mean, to delineate anticipatory saccades. We also employed a second paradigm (Fig.

It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east

It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. This nation has a rich and

diverse herpetic and arachnid fauna, with wide geographical distribution. This biodiversity has not, however, been properly studied. Hadruroides (Pocock, 1893) is a scorpion genus included in the family Iuridae, subfamily Charaboctoninae. This genus comprises sixteen species and there members appear brown in color with darker stains and have median size of 80 mm ( Ochoa selleck screening library and Prendini, 2010; Maury, 1975). Hadruroides scorpions have been reported in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela ( Mello-Leitão, 1945; Esquivel de Verde, 1968; Kinzelbach, 1973; Maury, 1975; Cekalovic, 1983; Sissom and Fet, 2000), but are actually restricted to Ecuador, Peru, northern

Chile, and several offshore islands, including the Galápagos ( Cekalovic, 1966; Maury, 1975; Francke and Soleglad, 1981). Species of Hadruroides inhabit inter-Andean valleys, Pacific desert, and dry forest habitats ( Ochoa and Prendini, 2010). Hadruroides lunatus (“escorpion de los pedregales”) is the most Selleckchem SGI-1776 medically relevant species in Peru. According to the Health Ministry of Peru ( Ministerio de Salud del Perú, 2004), the number of human envenomation cases reported has increased during recent years, with most incidents occurring in the Central Coast of the country, which corresponds with the main area of geographical distribution of H. lunatus scorpions ( Zavaleta et al., 1981). Severe toxic effects by H. lunatus stings have not been noted in humans; however, intense pain, edema and ulceration are frequently described as symptoms ( Zavaleta et al., 1981). cAMP Different approaches are adopted for the treatment of scorpion envenomations such as local care, analgesics and antihistaminics ( Ministério

de Salúd, Peru, 2004). Nevertheless, there are no scientific data to support these treatments. The Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) in Lima, Peru does not produce specific scorpion anti-venon ( Ministério de Salúd, Peru, 2004). Consequently, the treatment of scorpion envenomations with specific anti-venom for Peruvian species does not exist. Very little is known about the structural and functional characteristics of Peruvian scorpion venoms. The first toxicological information was obtained from research on the H. lunatus species ( Delgado and Pesce, 1967; Aguilar, 1968; Aguilar and Meneses, 1970 and Zavaleta et al., 1981). The pharmacological effects described by Zavaleta et al. (1981) showed that H. lunatus crude venom has a low lethality in mice (LD50, 68 mg/kg i.p.) and, in dogs, induces a fall in blood pressure. Neurotoxic activity in insects, crustaceans and mice and antibacterial peptides from the Hadruroides sp. crude venoms were showed by Escobar et al. (2002) and Escobar and Flores, (2008).

4Km ( Endrenyi, 1981) If taken too literally Endrenyi׳s analysis

4Km ( Endrenyi, 1981). If taken too literally Endrenyi׳s analysis suggests that there is nothing to be gained by extending the range of substrate concentrations below 0.4Km. However, there are in fact two reasons not to take it too literally. First, it will rarely be certain that the observed rates have uniform standard deviation, and if, for example, they have uniform coefficient of variation (which may be more likely: see the discussion below of the assumptions selleck kinase inhibitor in least squares), the ideal lower

limit is zero, not 0.4Km ( Endrenyi, 1981). Secondly, it will often not be safe to assume that there is no “blank rate”, i.e. that the rate is zero in the absence of substrate, and measurements at very low substrate concentrations will provide an indication of this. An appropriate design of an experiment for kinetic characterization of an enzyme involves

more than just choosing appropriate substrate and effector concentrations. Even if no pH or temperature dependence studies as such are being made, it is still PD0325901 in vitro necessary to choose appropriate pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc., and to choose an appropriate buffer. If the results are intended to have physiological meaning (including use for metabolic modelling, these conditions should be as close to physiological as possible, but for mechanistic studies they can be varied to supply the particular kind of information sought. In either case it is important to use a buffer appropriate for the pH to be used, with a pKa no more than 1 pH unit from the desired pH, and preferably less, so an acetate buffer (pKa=4.64) would be ineffective as a buffer at pH 7, for example. One must also take care that the buffer does not react with the enzyme or interfere with the assay: for example, glycylglycine is typically inappropriate for use with peptidases, buy Palbociclib and Hepes and numerous other buffers interfere with the Lowry method of protein analysis. When it is desirable to simplify the mixture as much as possible, the pHstat allows the pH to be

maintained constant without any chemical buffer. It is no more realistic in 2014 to suggest that biochemists should write their own computer programs to analyse their kinetic data than it would be to suggest that they should prepare their own ATP. So far as molecular biology is concerned it is clear that we live in an age of kits, and if that is less true of enzymology than of molecular biology it is mainly because enzymology is a less fashionable subject for which manufacturers do not find it worth their while to develop kits on the same scale. Nonetheless, parameter estimation has become almost entirely a matter of using commercial programs as if they were black boxes, without any idea of how they work or what they are assuming about the input data, in other words using them as kits.

001 N NaOH (Jiang et al , 2007) Two groups (n = 7 and n = 15) we

001 N NaOH (Jiang et al., 2007). Two groups (n = 7 and n = 15) were used for oxidative stress and behavioral experiments, respectively. They were randomly divided into

three groups: (1) Sham + vehicle group; (2) CLP + vehicle and (3) CLP + GUA group. We do not have a sham group with GUA in order to decrease the number of animals used, but we did some pilot experiments that in the conditions that GUA was administered in sham animals cognitive and oxidative damage parameters were not altered and in this study, we did not evaluate the GUA role in the sham group. ABT-199 in vivo Animals were submitted only to one behavioral task. Twelve or 24 h after the surgery procedure (CLP or sham), all rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus, cerebellum, striatum, prefrontal cortex and “cortex” (cerebral cortex without the prefrontal cortex) were quickly isolated by hand dissection Dasatinib molecular weight using a magnifying glass and a thin brush; dissection was based on histological distinctions described by Paxinos and Watson (1986). Samples were stored at −80 °C for subsequent analysis of oxidative stress. As an index of oxidative stress effects on lipids, we used the formation of TBARS during an acid-heating reaction, as previously described (Esterbauer and Cheeseman, 1990). Briefly, the samples were mixed with 1 mL

of 10% trichloroacetic acid and 1 mL of 0.67% thiobarbituric acid, and then heated in a boiling water bath for 15 min. TBARS was determined by the absorbance at 535 nm using 1,1,3,3-tetramethoxypropane HSP90 as an external standard. Results are expressed as malondialdehyde equivalents per milligram of protein. The oxidative stress effect on proteins was

assessed by the determination of carbonyl groups based on the reaction with dinitrophenylhidrazine, as previously described (Levine et al., 1994). Briefly, proteins were precipitated by the addition of 20% trichloroacetic acid and dissolved in dinitrophenylhidrazine, and the absorbance was read at 370 nm. Results are expressed as protein carbonylation per milligram of protein. Proteins were measured by the Lowry method (Lowry et al., 1951). The animals were separately submitted to four behavioral tasks: habituation to an open-field apparatus, inhibitory avoidance task, object recognition task and forced swimming task, 10 days after surgery. All behavioral procedures were conducted between 13:00 and 16:00 h in a sound-isolated room, and a single animal performed only one behavioral task in only one time point after surgery. All behavioral tasks were recorded by the same person who was blind to the animal group. This task evaluates aversive memory. The apparatus and procedures have been described in previous reports (Barichello et al., 2005 and Tuon et al., 2008). Briefly, the training apparatus was a 50 × 25 × 25 cm acrylic box (Insight, Brazil) whose floor consisted of parallel caliber stainless steel bars (1 mm diameter) spaced 1 cm apart. A 7 cm-wide, 2.