Even the reported results also suffered from the same deficiency in that samples used to detect AHLs were obtained from an open lake, which certainly contained numerous other AHL-producing bacteria. Only in 2008 did Sharif et al. show for
the first time that the cyanobacterium Gloeothece could produce C8-AHL QS signal in selleck chemical axenic culture. In this study, M. aeruginosa PCC-7820 was cultured axenically during the whole growth period and was tested for the presence of other microorganisms periodically by microscopic observation and culture detection on LB plates. Other microorganisms were not found in these two detection methods throughout the M. aeruginosa growth process. Therefore, it is the first report to detect the production of AHLs in the cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa in axenic cultures by both bioreporters assay and LC-MS technique. The bioassay strain C. violaceum CV026 has high sensitivity to short-chain unsubstituted AHLs such as C4-AHL and C6-AHL, but not C8-AHL or longer,
while A. tumefaciens KYC55 has the broadest range of AHL detection including short-chain, long-chain, substituted, and unsubstituted AHLs (Steindler & Venturi, 2007). Vibrio harveyi BB170 is another type of bioreporter that is applied widely to detect AI-2-like molecules (DeKeersmaecker & Vanderleyden, 2003). Based on the characteristics of the three bioreporters and the results of the biosensors assay, A. tumefaciens KYC55 showed a positive reaction but C. violaceum Sotrastaurin datasheet CV026 and V. harveyi BB170 did not; we suggest that M. aeruginosa could synthesize AHL-like molecules with long acyl side chains. Moreover, the concentration of these signaling molecules increased in a density-dependent manner and reached
its highest concentration of 18 nM relative to the reference OOHL when the cell density was about 1.03 × 107 cells mL−1, 30 days after inoculation (Fig. 1). Such concentration Selleckchem Staurosporine might be sufficient to trigger a QS-related response in M. aeruginosa. However, the AHLs concentration of M. aeruginosa declines sharply at day 30 when the alga moves to the late growth phase (Fig. 1). Similar phenomenon has been observed in other bacteria such as A. tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora, and Xanthomonas campestris, the QS signal of the bacteria accumulates in early stationary phase and its level subsequently declines sharply when bacteria move into stationary phase (Barber et al., 1997; Holden et al., 1998; Zhang et al., 2002). This phenomenon might be controlled by quorum-sensing signal-turnover systems in the bacteria (Zhang et al., 2002) or AHLs alkaline hydrolysis with the pH increase in the cultures (Gao et al., 2005).