Total concentrations of tobramycin and ceftazidime in dialysate f

Total concentrations of tobramycin and ceftazidime in dialysate fluid were determined by high-performance

liquid chromatography. The last time point when tobramycin or ceftazidime concentration was >90% from baseline was used to denote stability.

Results: All solutions were clear in appearance and no color change or precipitation was observed during the study. For tobramycin, under refrigeration, a mean of 94.6% +/- 2.3% of the initial concentration remained at 336 hours (14 days); at room temperature, 90.5% +/- 4.3% remained at 168 hours (7 days); at body temperature, 90.0% +/- 8.1% remained at 24 AG-881 hours. For ceftazidime, under refrigeration, a mean of 98.0% +/- 0.3% of the initial concentration remained at 168 hours (7 days); at room temperature, 91.6% +/- 2.0% remained at 48 hours; at body temperature, 93.9% +/- 1.1% remained at 8 hours. Stability was not assessed beyond these respective time points.

Conclusion: Premixed tobramycin-icodextrin PD solution remains stable for 336 hours (14 days) when refrigerated (4 degrees C) and for 168 hours (7 days) at room temperature (25 degrees C). Ceftazidime-icodextrin PD solution is stable for 168 hours and 48 hours, respectively, when stored at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C. It is BMS-777607 chemical structure recommended that the bags be kept refrigerated

whenever possible. Tobramycin-icodextrin solution stored at body temperature was stable up to 24 hours, and ceftazidime-icodextrin solutions up to 8 hours, permitting the practice of pre-warming solutions prior to administration.”
“Introduction: Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), also known as calciphylaxis, is a rare disease most frequently occurring

in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The clinical picture is typically characterized by very painful skin lesions and ulcerations following calcification and occlusion of small cutaneous arterioles. CUA is life-threatening due to infections and concomitant cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: We performed a literature search for the terms calciphylaxis and calcific uremic arteriolopathy and summarized current state-of-the-art knowledge about pathophysiology, clinical picture, course of the disease, as well as treatment options. We have filled out the literature data with our personal treatment experiences.

Results: A combination Panobinostat of various local and systemic risk factors are necessary to cause the development of calciphylaxis. This pathophysiological cascade is still incompletely understood. Patients with advanced CKD and dialysis patients are especially at risk to develop CUA. Regarding therapy, no randomized prospective trials are available, and treatment is rather based on pathophysiological considerations as well as on evidence derived from case reports or case series. Therapy focuses on optimized dialysis treatment, control of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder parameters, experimental anticalcification strategies and wound care.

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