This finding was the first discovery of the impact of chronic DU

This finding was the first discovery of the impact of chronic DU exposure on B-cell maturation, and the function of the mature B-cells in recognising antigens and mediating

specific immune responses was thereby affected. The impact of DU on humoral immunity was apparently similar to that of radiation. Exposure to low doses of gamma external irradiation (10 cGy, 1 cGy/min) activated the thymus-dependent humoral immune and enhanced polyclonal B-cells in mice (Sharetskiĭ et al., 2000). It should be clarified that both immunosuppression and immune stimulation are immunotoxic reactions (Gleichmann et al., 1989). Third, long-term exposure to DU led to changes in the cellular immune function in the DU300 group (300 mg/kg), including decreased proliferative ability of ConA-stimulated click here splenic T cells, suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity, decrease in the number of CD3+ cells, and decrease in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ splenic T cells.

In selleck products the DU30 group (30 mg/kg), the proliferative ability of splenic T cells was also significantly decreased, suggesting reduced responsiveness of the T cells to mitogens. No significant change in the DU3 group (3 mg/kg) was observed. In the DU300 group, the inhibition of DTH that was primarily mediated by T cells suggested dysfunctional T-cell sensitisation, proliferation, and release of lymphokines or aggregation of lymphocytes through chemotactic effects, and this process mainly depended on the involvement of Th1 cells (Dietert and Piepenbrink, 2006). Similar to the results of this study, Thymidylate synthase pregnant female rats that are exposed to lead acetate (250 ppm)

via drinking water from inception of the pregnancy to birth produced offspring in which the Th1 cells were suppressed at week 13 ( Chen et al., 2004). Furthermore, many studies ( Chen et al., 1999 and Lee et al., 2001) have demonstrated that chronic lead exposure decreases the responsiveness of delayed-type hypersensitivity, which is believed to occur through the inhibition of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. This study also revealed that 4 months of exposure to more than 300 mg/kg uranium in the diet decreases the proportion of the total splenic T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells). Moreover, the proportion of CD4+CD8− T lymphocytes was decreased, the proportion of CD4−CD8+ T lymphocytes was increased, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ splenic T cells was decreased, suggesting an imbalance of the subtypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which would cause a decrease in the cellular immune function mediated by the CD4+ T cells and a significantly weakened anti-viral infection capacity of the CD4+ T cells. Consistent with the results of this study, Wan et al. (2006) conducted in vitro experiments on CD4+ splenic T cells and reported that exposure to DU (500 μM) for 24 hours led to apoptosis and necrosis of the CD4+ T cells.

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