These collaborations have led to research publications in the pee

These collaborations have led to research publications in the peer reviewed literature and no personal payments were received within the research funding. MW is a past employee of Syngenta. We thank the study doctors and research coordinators for collecting data, gathering blood samples, and reviewing the medical records included in this study. We also thank the hospital physicians and medical superintendents

of General Hospital Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa for their assistance and support of the study. We also thank Bruce Woollen, formerly Syngenta CTL, for the paraquat GSK2126458 cell line analysis. This research was funded by Wellcome Trust/NHMRC International Collaborative Research Grant 071669MA. The funding bodies had no role in gathering, analysing, or interpreting the data, or the writing of this manuscript, or the decision to submit. “
“In children with no observable peripheral symptoms of Pb exposure (“asymptomatic”), blood Pb levels as low as 2.5 μg/dL have been associated with, for example, lower IQ, reduced academic achievement, and poorer memory, attention, motor dexterity and problem-solving, suggestive of altered brain development (Canfield et al., 2003, Chiodo et al., 2004 and Lanphear et al., 2005). In mouse and rodent models, early chronic exposure to Pb resulted in decreased memory,

and abnormal motor and learn more exploratory behavior (Azzaoui et al., 2009, Kasten-Jolly et al., 2012 and Leasure et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which early chronic exposure to Pb alters brain structure and function have not been identified. Results from in vivo and in vitro Idelalisib in vivo studies have suggested that Pb may promote neurotoxicity by disrupting neuroimmune system function (Kraft and Harry, 2011). The neuroimmune system is comprised of microglial cells. Microglia protect brain tissue through constant surveillance and scavenging of debris and foreign substances from the local environment (Schwartz et al., 2006); microglia also facilitate neuronal

activity, and interact functionally with astrocytes (Aloisi, 2001). During development, activated microglia support and protect neurite development, guide synaptic pruning, and sculpt neural circuits (Paolicelli et al., 2011, Ransohoff and Cardona, 2010 and Schafer et al., 2012). The critical neuroprotective role of microglia during early development is suggested by the acute sensitivity of these cells to CNS changes, as indicated by extremely rapid activation and proliferation response times (Dissing-Olesen et al., 2007). Microglia express IBA-1 thus IBA-1 antibody is used in immunohistochemical preparations to label microglia in brain tissue. Microglia are activated by various agents that trigger a sequence of unique morphologic changes, including cell body enlargement.

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