The pre-culture was harvested by centrifugation and resuspended i

The pre-culture was harvested by centrifugation and resuspended in physiological sodium chloride solution to achieve an OD600 of 1.5. The stomach-intestinal passage simulation was incubated using the adjusted solution and incubated for 7 h. The dashed line shows the addition of bile salts and pancreatic juice. Curves are the mean of duplicate experiments. The preparation of the inoculum of L. gasseri K7 in a 100 ml culture volume was also evaluated. The results of the experiments are shown in Figure 7. With 250 ml culture the decrease in living cells was about log 2 whereas the decrease with a

100 ml culture was only log 1 over the whole incubation time. However, 2 h after addition of bile salts and pancreatic juice, the decrease in cell counts was similar for both volumes. Discussion When harvesting a culture after a given incubation time, Pevonedistat in vitro the growth phase of each bacterial strain can be different since all have

different growth dynamics. In order to obtain cells at approximately the same growth phase, preliminary experiments were performed (data not shown). An incubation time of 15 h for the pre-culture was suitable Smad3 signaling for all tested strains except Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis which needed to be incubated for only 12 h. The acid tolerance screening (Figures 2, 3 and 4) was performed to evaluate the effect of pH independently of other conditions. Bifidobacterium dentium was highly sensitive to acid and therefore would possibly not survive

the passage through the stomach. The strain was therefore not included in the simulation experiments. The B. longum strains (Figure 2) did not yield much better results than B. dentium (Figure 3). However, close to pH 4 they were more resistant than B. dentium. B. longum subsp. infantis is one of the first species to populate the human intestine shortly Staurosporine nmr after birth [26]. Based on the experiments in this study, however, the tested B. longum subsp. infantis strain would only be able to pass the infant stomach in high numbers if the transition time in the acidic stomach was very short. The survival of the selected strain in the tested environment was too low for successful passage in high numbers. When the strain was resuspended in skim milk, survival increased (Figure 5). This could be an indication that human milk helps B. longum subsp. infantis strains to pass the stomach-intestine passage with at a higher survival rate. The protective effects of milk proteins in the digestive RXDX-101 price system have already been described in the literature [27]. Protection with milk proteins has also been shown in this study (Figure 5). With the appropriate matrix or even a carrier, probiotic bacteria could safely pass through the stomach to the intestines to reach their site of action. B. adolescentis strains that populate the human intestine at a later age, had slightly higher resistance than B. longum subsp.

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