The implications of the authors’ work rest in the breadth of literature available as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the different types of review studies. The fact that variations exist in the literature has implications on how the literature can be incorporated into EBP or in the AORN RP document authorship process. Specifically, it has implications for the literature review and
appraisal process. The overall process requires that each article that is identified by the key search words be retrieved, synthesized, and analyzed. Having a working knowledge of the characteristics of the various types of studies and other evidence is necessary to be able to accurately appraise the quality of the evidence. The different types of evidence include research and nonresearch. Of Selleck Galunisertib the two types of evidence that must be reviewed and appraised, scientific research is the strongest.7 Scientific research is a method of study that uses orderly, systematic, and disciplined methods to solve problems either quantitatively or qualitatively, and it usually is reproducible and unbiased.1, 2, 3 and 4 Research categories include systematic reviews, RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, nonexperimental
studies, and qualitative studies. Systematic reviews summarize evidence related VX809 to a particular practice question. In a systematic review, the available research on a specific topic is searched and evaluated according to rigorous guidelines to determine whether there is convincing evidence to support a particular treatment or intervention. Systematic reviews address both the strengths and limitations of each of the studies included in the review.7 Randomized controlled trials are individual studies that have three distinct features: randomization, manipulation, and control. Randomization is when the researcher assigns subjects to a control or experimental group in a random SB-3CT pattern. Randomization is an important
indicator of the validity of the study because, when the subjects are randomly assigned, it increases the likelihood that the subjects in each of the groups will be more similar in demographic and clinical characteristics at the start of the study, thereby making it less likely that other characteristics will be the reason for the differences in outcomes at the end of the study.7 Manipulation is when the researcher takes an action (eg, wearing surgical masks) to influence some aspect of the phenomenon being studied (eg, the sterility of the sterile field).7 Control is when the researcher includes a group of subjects to whom the experimental intervention is not applied (eg, not wearing surgical masks).