41, 10 59); medium/fair skin, 5 67 (3 68, 8 73); olive/medium ski

41, 10.59); medium/fair skin, 5.67 (3.68, 8.73); olive/medium skin, 3.54 (1.75, 7.18); olive skin, 10.93 (4.09, 29.20) and dark skin, 13.81 (2.21, 86.18). Although mean GAD antibody levels were highest for the two categories of darker skin, an overall trend by skin Erastin type category was not evident (p=0.44). In contrast, the geometric means (95% CI) of IAA antibodies by skin type were as follows: fair skin, 0.88 (0.50, 1.53); medium/fair

skin, 0.68 (0.51, 0.91); olive/medium skin, 0.94 (0.65, 1.35); olive skin, 1.53 (0.64, 3.67) and dark skin, 3.93 (0.01, 10.99). After adjustment for child age and sex, the increase in IAA level by darker skin type category remained significant (p=0.048). After adjustment for child age and sex, a family history of diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or diabetes/gestational diabetes) and darker skin pigmentation were positively associated with IAA levels and these factors were taken into account in subsequent analyses. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and current paternal smoking were not associated with GADA or IAA levels. Children who were reported to have had a cold or flu-like illness or a urinary tract infection in the three months prior to diagnosis had higher IAA antibody levels than children

who had not. AA levels were not associated with asthma or hay fever history but children reported to have had eczema over the past 12 months had Atezolizumab in vivo five-fold higher GADA levels (Table 1). There was no association between total, older or younger sibling number, or body mass index or child weight with AA levels. Here, maternal vitamin D supplementation and fish consumption tended to be associated with slightly higher, not lower GADA levels but it must be remembered that in Australia UVR is the major determinant of vitamin D status [30]. Only one child consumed fish oil supplements so these could not be formally examined. We examined how child characteristics predicted the likelihood of having both antibodies detected vs. either no antibodies or just one antibody Sitaxentan (Table 2). The likelihood of seropositivity

to both AA declined with age (p=0.02). Again, skin pigmentation appeared important with each 1% increase in melanin density associated with an odds ratio of 1.39 or 1.43 for multiple AA seropositivity vs. no antibodies or one AA, respectively. Older or younger sibling number, past sun exposure, fish consumption, recent (within the previous 3 months) infection history and a history of asthma, hay fever or eczema over the past year were not associated with multiple AA seropositivity. Children with a past history of any ear infection were more likely to exhibit multiple AA seropositivity and a history of chicken pox was associated with a reduced likelihood of multiple vs. no AA seropositivity. We further examined if case characteristics differed by age of onset.

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