pylori infection in 592 Iranian children from Shiraz and 386 children from Rafsanjan (82% and 47%, respectively) . Iran and Iraq have a high prevalence of cagA+H. pylori.  In a study from Pakistan, a seroprevalence of 47% among 1976 children (1–15 years) was reported. The father’s educational status, crowding, and increasing age were the main factors influencing seropositivity . Understanding the intrafamilial spread of H. pylori is an important aspect of transmission research. A study of 100 children with abdominal symptoms (44 H. pylori+) found a higher percentage
of H. pylori infected siblings, mothers, and fathers, tested by urea breath test(UBT), among H. pylori+ 3-deazaneplanocin A research buy than H. pylori− index cases (p < .001, p < .001 and p < .035, respectively) . Each H. pylori+ child had at least one infected family member, implicating the family as the source of H. pylori infection in children. Nahar et al. found evidence of intrafamilial transmission of H. pylori by characterizing H. pylori in 35 families, including 138 family members, using DNA fingerprinting . Forty-six percent of strains from the mothers shared related genotype with strains from their children. Only 6% of parents shared a related genotype, suggesting mother–child transmission as the most probable transmission route. In a study from Iran, Amini et al. described the
association between H. pylori infection and eating habits (sharing plates, glasses, and spoons) and found a significantly higher prevalence of H. pylori infection in families where common dishes were used . Travis et al. used UBT testing at 6- month intervals from Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor birth to 24 months to describe possible water-borne transmission of H. pylori in a cohort study of 472 children from Mexico and Texas . Their results provide some support for water-borne transmission. On the other hand, Vale and Vitor reviewed water-
and food-borne see more transmission of H. pylori and concluded that the principal transmission route remains to be clearly defined . The discussion about the association between recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), epigastric pain, unspecified abdominal pain, and H. pylori infection in children continues. Thakkar et al. published a retrospective study on upper digestive endoscopy in 1191 children with abdominal pain; 55 children (5%) were diagnosed with H. pylori infection, the second most common diagnosis after reflux esophagitis (23%) . They agreed that earlier studies did not show a causal relation between H. pylori infection and abdominal pain in absence of ulcer disease, but conceded that there is a trend to offer eradication therapy once the H. pylori infection has been diagnosed. In a meta-analysis, Spee et al. found no association between RAP and H. pylori infection in children and limited evidence for an association between unspecified abdominal pain and H. pylori in referred, but not in primary care patients .