2013) As a consequence, their early and accurate diagnosis is es

2013). As a consequence, their early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Quantitative PCR enables the detection of the pathogen in asymptomatic plant material (seeds, tubers, potted plants, etc.) for which there are no symptoms to use as a guide for

sampling. Particularly relevant is the detection of quarantine pathogens, because molecular analyses are likely to impact on large-scale eradication schemes or plant trade (Schena et al. 2006; Montes-Borrego et al. 2011). Due to its high specificity and sensitivity, qPCR is increasingly included in official protocols of the European Plant Protection Organization (http://archives.eppo.org/index.htm) for the certification, production and assessment of healthy plant materials (Blanco-Meneses

and Ristaino 2011; Boutigny et al. 2013). Given the high importance of an accurate detection of quarantine Daporinad research buy pathogens and the risk of false positive/negative results, a www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html statistical procedure has been proposed to determine the cycle cut-off and the corresponding limit of detection in qPCR (Chandelier et al. 2010). Recently, qPCR methods with great potential for use in pathogen-free certification schemes have been set up for Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, the main causal agents of Petri disease and esca in grapevine wood (Martín et al. 2012) and for quarantine pathogens such as Plasmopara haistedii (Ioos et al. 2012) and Ceratocystis platani (Pilotti et al. 2012). Isolation of pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from naturally infested soil, especially those containing low populations, is extremely difficult or impossible unless special

techniques are used. The difficulty is usually due to antagonism and interference from secondary microflora, including actinomycetes, bacteria and unwanted fast-growing fungi as well as to the slow emergence of the dormant propagules (e.g. chlamydospores and sclerotia). Failure to detect soilborne pathogens may result in false disease diagnosis or erroneous conclusions in disease control and experimental trials (Tsao 1970). Many investigations find more have demonstrated the higher reliability of qPCR in detecting soilborne pathogens compared with alternative conventional methods. Lievens et al. (2006) reported that, unlike conventional culturing methods, qPCR was appropriate to detect and quantify several important pathogens of tomato (Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium spp. and Pythium ultimum) over a wide range of concentrations. In southern Africa, a significant higher number of oomycete species was identified in grapevine nurseries and vineyards than in previous studies and this was at least in part due to the higher accuracy and resolution of molecular protocols (Spies et al. 2011). A specific qPCR method was utilized to quantify F.

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