For this reason, methods of abrogating the activity of Treg cells

For this reason, methods of abrogating the activity of Treg cells might be critical for the successful immunotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Studies showed that Treg and Th17

cells co-existed in the microenvironment of different types of tumour, and the development of Th17 cells was described to be linked to that of Treg in a reciprocal fashion; however, information on human bladder cancer Th17/Treg development and differentiation is limited. Our data revealed that Th17 cells were correlated inversely with Treg cells and correlated positively with IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells in the same tumour microenvironment. It has shown that recombinant IL-2 is a promising agent for the activation of immune response against tumour learn more and plays a central role in balancing Treg cells and IL-17+ T cells in multiple diseases. Kryczek et al. reported that IL-2 regulated Selleck Antiinfection Compound Library the balance between tumour Treg and Th17 cells by stimulating the differentiation of Treg and inhibiting that of Th17 cells [35]. However, Leveque et al. revealed that under some stimulated conditions, IL-2 rapidly converted epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) Treg into Th17 cells, down-regulated

FoxP3 expression, and lost their suppressive capacity [17]. Due to the above conflicting data, we sought to determine whether IL-2 would also play a role in balancing Treg cells and IL-17+ T cells in bladder cancers. Our results indicated that tumour-infiltrating Treg cells cultured in the presence of the autologous irradiated CD3– fraction and IL-2 could be converted into Th17 cells, which might be involved in the mechanism that instillations of IL-2 into the urinary bladder is effective in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. In conclusion, the present data suggest that Th17 cells, together with Treg cells, might contribute to the immunopathogenesis of bladder cancer, and inhibition of Th17 cell development might be a novel immune evasion mechanism. We further identified Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II that IL-2 played a role

in balancing Treg cells and IL-17+ T cells by converting bladder cancer Treg into Th17 cells, our results encouraged a deep in vivo exploration of its effects on in situ immune responses. Further studies are still needed to identify the mechanisms of underlying regulation and dynamic interaction among Th17 cells and Treg and Th1 cells in human pathological conditions such as bladder cancer. The authors have no financial conflict of interest. This study was supported by Heilongjiang Province Science Foundation for Youths (project number: QC2009C05), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, Innovation of science and technology of Harbin youth (project number: 2008RFQXS008) and Foundation of Heilongjiang Educational Committee (project number: 11531160).

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