hmpdacc org/reference_genomes php) and the assembled and annotate and the assembled and annotated genomic sequences of this bacterium have been submitted to the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ selleck compound database (; accession number AEVO01000000, and consists of sequences AEVO01000001-AEVO01000169, submitted (31-JAN-2011) by Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine). Based on blast analysis and inspection of the annotation of the draft sequence, it is indicated that there is a lack of the genes for CA in this bacterium. However, the sequence data whole genome shotgun draft generated by illumina reads that it consists of 169 contigs with gaps. Therefore,

we speculate that, as in S. thermophilum, the requirement for CO2 in S. hippei YIT 12066T is due to a CA deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of a strictly CO2-requiring bacterium from human GI microbiota. The CO2 concentrations click here required for the growth of S. hippei in the human intestinal tract may be achieved by the metabolic activities of other microbiota. Alternatively, the growth of S. hippei may be supported by bicarbonate secreted into the GI tract from the pancreas (19). The loss of the carbonic anhydrase gene in S. hippei may have occurred as a result of its adapting to its niche, the GI tract, which is rich in CO2/bicarbonate, although it is also possible that the ancestor

of this bacterium did not retain the corresponding gene from the beginning.

No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed. “
“Various studies have shown that dietary glutamine can modify the course of an immune response, through altering the release of cytokines. Nutritional supplementation of glutamine may therefore be of advantage to patients, particularly those with compromised immunity. Given that polymorphisms in cytokine genes can also affect cytokine levels, we have undertaken a study to identify whether there was a differential Meloxicam effect of glutamine supplementation in the context of different IL-2 -330 (T/G) and TNF-α -308 (A/G) genotypes. Overall, there was no significant impact of glutamine supplementation on IL2 release. However, analysing low, medium and high expressors independently, there was an effect of high glutamine levels on cytokine release from the low and medium expressors. Likewise, there was no effect of glutamine supplementation on the TNF-α release, although a tendency to lower cytokine release at high levels of glutamine. Irrespective of the glutamine concentrations, there was no difference in IL2 release between the IL2 -330 genotypes; there was an effect of the TNF-α genotypes, with the AG and GG genotypes showing greater cytokine release than from the AA genotype. The nutritional status is a very important criterion of assessment for patients’ immunocompetence. In certain situations, patients require the reasonable substitution of different dietary components.

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