62 Å, b = 11.76 Å, and c = 3.95 Å (JCPDS card file 72–1184). For doping levels higher than x = 0.04 for Lu3+ and Yb3+, additional unknown phases were observed (curve c of Figure 1). In the case of Lu3+/Er3+ co-doped
compounds, the intensity of some peaks has been changed, and for doping levels Ceritinib higher than of x = 0.04 for Lu3+ and Er3+, additional unknown phases were also observed (see Additional file 1). Figure 1 Powder XRD pattern of Lu x Yb x Sb 2−x Se 3 . Curve a: x = 0.0, curve b: x = 0.04, and curve c = impurity phase. In addition, a little shift toward the low angle was seen in the diffraction peaks of the co-doped Sb2Se3 compared with those of the undoped Sb2Se3 nanocrystals. This suggests that the larger lanthanide ions substitute the antimony ions, resulting in increased lattice constants. As expected, the EDX and ICP analyses of the product confirm the ratio of Sb/Se/Ln/Ln′ (see Figure 2). Figure 2 EDX patterns of Ln x Ln′ x Sb 2−2 x Se 3 compounds. The cell parameters of the synthesized materials were calculated from the XRD patterns.
With increasing dopant content (x), the lattice parameters were increased for these materials, as shown in Figure 3. This trend is similar to the previous reported Ln-doped Sb2Se3 compounds [16–20]. Figure 3 The lattice constants of co-doped Sb 2 Se 3 dependent upon Ln 3 + doping on Sb 3 + sites. Figure 4a shows SEM images of Lu0.04Yb0.04Sb1.92Se3 nanorods with 3-μm lengths and thicknesses of 70 to 200 nm. Co-doping of BMS-777607 research buy Lu3+ and Yb3+ into the structure of Sb2Se3 does not change the morphology of the Sb2Se3 nanorods, but doping of Lu3+ and Er3+ into the structure of Sb2Se3 changes the morphology from rods to particles. The diameter of Lu0.04Er0.04Sb1.92Se3 O-methylated flavonoid particles is around 25 nm (Figure 4b). Figure 4 SEM images of co-doped antimony selenide. (a) Lu0.04Yb0.04Sb1.92Se3 nanorods (b) Lu0.04Er0.04Sb1.92Se3 nanoparticles. Figure 5a shows TEM image of as-prepared Lu0.04Yb0.04Sb1.92Se3 nanorods. The SAED pattern and typical HRTEM image recorded from the same nanorods of Lu0.04Yb0.04Sb1.92Se3 is shown
in Figure 5b,c. The crystal lattice fringes are clearly observed, and the average distance between the neighboring fringes is 0.82 nm, corresponding to the [1–10] plane lattice distance of the orthorhombic-structured Sb2Se3, which suggests that Lu0.04Yb0.04Sb1.92Se3 nanorods grow along the  direction. The HRTEM image and SAED pattern are the same for Sb2Se3 and show similar growth direction (see the Additional file 1). Figure 5 TEM (a), SAED pattern (b), and HRTEM image (c) of Lu 0.04 Yb 0.04 Sb 1.92 Se 3 nanorods. Figure 6a,b shows the TEM image and SAED patterns of Lu0.04Er0.04Sb1.92Se3 nanoparticles obtained in ethanol/water media that confirms the result through SEM images and shows high crystallinity of the sample. Figure 6 TEM (a) and SAED pattern ( b ) of Lu 0.04 Er 0.04 Sb 1.92 Se 3 nanoparticle .