Microarray analyses did not reveal differences in expression of m

Microarray analyses did not reveal differences in expression of major enzymes involved in glycolysis Tigecycline purchase or degradation of those amino acids that were less efficiently consumed by the mutant (Table  1). Thus, the reduced consumption of glucose or amino acids may result either from perturbed pyruvate utilization or/and from reduced activity of one or several enzymes involved in catabolic pathways upstream of pyruvate. Several genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis, protein and folic acid metabolism, and several transport

systems were dysregulated in Δfmt, which may also contribute to the slower growth of the mutant. Transcription of a putative NADH dehydrogenase subunit (ndhF) was strongly repressed in Δfmt, maybe as a result of the altered NAD+/NADH ratio. However, JAK inhibitor Δfmt grew much better under aerated compared to non-aerated conditions (Figure  1) and it did not produce more ermentation products than the wild type (Figure  2) indicating that the respiratory capacity of the mutant remained

largely intact. Δfmt also released lower amounts of uracil than the wild-type (Figure  2) and this difference was reflected by reduced expression of uridine nucleoside hydrolase (Table  1A). Lack of arginine deiminase activity in Δfmt

mutant Our metabolomics approach measured only those metabolites that appeared in culture supernatants. In order to monitor further metabolic activities the wild-type, Δfmt and complemented Interleukin-2 receptor mutant strains were checked for the ability to catabolize different carbon and energy sources with an ApiStaph diagnostic test (BioMérieux). Only one out of 20 reactions revealed a different behavior of Δfmt (Figure  3). No degradation of arginine via arginine deiminase (ADI) leading to the production of citrulline and ammonia was observed in Δfmt. This reaction is the first step in the anaerobic catabolism of arginine, which serves as an ATP source by substrate level phosphorylation [19]. Of note, the enzymes of the ADI pathway were not altered in their expression, neither under aerobic nor anaerobic conditions (Table  1) suggesting that the absence of formylation may directly affect the activity of one or more ADI pathway enzymes. Figure 3 Δfmt is not able to deiminate arginine. ApiStaph tests (BioMérieux) were performed with the wild type, Δfmt mutant, and complemented Δfmt mutant and photographically evaluated after (A) 24 h and (B) 30 h incubation under anaerobic conditions.

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