, 2010) Across 13 populations of Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti (fi

, 2010). Across 13 populations of Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti (fishtail palm; averaging 25 individuals), allelic capture

was estimated at 5–58% ( Cibrian-Jaramillo Crizotinib et al., 2013). This level of genetic representation (i.e., 15–25 individuals) is impossible to achieve in most individual botanic gardens, hence current efforts by BGCI to co-ordinate the species’ conservation through more intensive species planting within gardens is critical to success ( BGCI, 2014). If species are represented by individual trees at botanic gardens the progeny may be severely inbred, if they produce seed at all. Representation by only a few individuals may also lead to inbreeding problems in subsequent generations, a situation somewhat analogous to that observed with ‘pasture’ trees following forest clearance ( Lowe et al., 2005). However, buy Venetoclax in assigning a management priority for garden collections,

consideration should be given to species information available on the basis of their imperilment and operational costs to maintain diversity ( Cibrian-Jaramillo et al., 2013). There are numerous challenges in developing strategies for tree seed regeneration, including long-term space requirements to accommodate mature growth, the time taken to create a seed orchard and their maintenance costs, as times to first flowering and maximum seed output from trees vary considerably between species. Consequently, for seed storage to be more widely accepted and adopted as an effective long term ex situ conservation strategy it is necessary to demonstrate that tree seeds can be stored for periods well in excess of the time to reach reproductive age and preferably the tree’s lifespan. Long-term storage is not the main purpose of the many ‘active’ seed collections maintained by tree seed centres,

scientific institutions and private commercial suppliers. Based on the World Agroforestry Centre’s Tree Seed Suppliers Directory (TSSD), such collections contain 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase 2,846 woody perennial species of known natural source (Dawson et al., 2013). Clearly, this is an important ex situ reservoir of biodiversity. However, the environmental conditions for storage are less stringent than those applied in long-term seed banks, such that these ‘active’ seed collections only maintain a high viability for short-term use in afforestation programmes and require regular replenishment. What then is the prospect of storing tree seeds for longer than the time to reproductive age or species lifespan? There are records of thousands of years’ lifespan, for example, bristlecone pine; and some large emergent trees from the Amazon rainforest have been carbon dated at more than 1,400 years old (Chambers et al., 1998). However, the average lifespan of trees is probably closer to 150 years.

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