, 2006 and Juvonen et al., 2000); lower achievement and feeling unsafe in school (Glew, Fan, Katon, Alectinib Rivara, & Kernic, 2005); somatic complaints, such as headaches, stomachaches, bed-wetting, and sleep problems (Williams et al., 1996); and social skills deficits (Egan and Perry, 1998, Rubin et al., 2009 and Schwartz et al., 1993). Bullying can also lead to further rejection and isolation as peers might be reluctant to befriend or defend targeted youth (Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt,
1990). As a result, emotional and behavioral problems are common in bullied youth. Meta-analysis has shown that bullying is significantly related to generalized anxiety and social anxiety. Victims are three times more likely than nonvictims to experience an anxiety disorder directly following the incident (Hawker and Boulton, 2000 and Kumpulainen et al., 2001) and are at heightened risk for future development of anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood (Gladstone et al., 2006, Hanish and Guerra, 2002 and Sourander et al., 2007). A similar relationship has been found between bullying and depression. Victims are often lonely, isolated, and withdrawn (Hawker & Boulton, 2000), and an increase in
depressed mood and suicidal ideation has been identified among victims (Klomek, Sourander, & Gould, 2010). Of course, the relationship between bullying and emotional distress is complex. Youth with primary anxiety and mood problems can be seen as easy targets for aggressive children as they are often inhibited, withdrawn, sensitive, and may lack the confidence to assert themselves in http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Lapatinib-Ditosylate.html the face of bullying. Thus, anxiety and mood problems appear to be a consistent consequence of bullying, and internalizing disorders may be a significant predictor of future victimization (Cluver et al., 2010 and Fekkes et al., 2006). To address bullying
in schools, all but a few states have passed anti-bullying legislation that requires school districts to develop and implement formal Dapagliflozin systems for identification and intervention of bullying. In New Jersey, for example, anti-bullying legislation mandates that each school identify an anti-bullying specialist who is responsible for preventing, identifying, and addressing harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) incidents in the school. Anti-bullying laws differ across states, but most include statements prohibiting bullying behavior, procedures for reporting bullying events, and general guidelines for consequences (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development Policy and Program Studies Service, 2011). Some state guidelines have gone as far as imposing criminal sanctions for bullying behavior. In Georgia, a state with one of the most punitive sanctions for bullying behaviors, it is required that any student involved in bullying on three or more occasions be automatically transferred to an alternative school (Ga. Code Ann. §20-2-751.4). Several state statutes (e.g.