Vasopressin and urinary concentration: additional risk factors in the progression of chronic renal failure. Am J www.selleckchem.com/products/Temsirolimus.html kidney Dis. 1991;17:20–6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2024668.”
“Introduction IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis in the world, and is recognized as one of the major causes of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) [1–5]. Although IgAN was initially believed
to represent a benign condition, recent studies  have shown that 30–40 % of patients progress to ESKD within 10–25 years from its apparent onset. Therefore, treatment strategies to decrease the risk of IgAN progressing to ESKD would have substantial health benefits . However, disease-specific therapy for IgAN patients has not been Roscovitine mouse established because the pathogenesis of IgAN is still a matter of debate. As annual check-ups including urinalysis are well established in Japan, patients in various stages of IgAN can be managed and are provided a wide variety of treatments. Oral corticosteroid, steroid pulse therapy, tonsillectomy and steroid pulse therapy (TSP), antihypertensive agents, immunosuppressants, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are listed in the regional guidelines of Japan . Corticosteroid
therapy is now a popular treatment for IgAN patients after being first reported by Kobayashi . Although the clinical value of intravenous GS-9973 research buy steroid pulse therapy was demonstrated by Pozzi et al , no consensus exists for the corticosteroid dose and administration route (oral or intravenous infusion). TSP has recently become a popular standard
treatment in Japan. However, the current status of IgAN treatment in Japan is still unclear because no nationwide study has been conducted. C59 concentration Thus, we conducted a nationwide survey using a questionnaire through the Progressive Renal Diseases Research, Research on intractable disease, from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Methods We sent questionnaires by mail to 1,194 hospitals (Internal Medicine, 803; Pediatrics, 391), which are teaching hospitals in the Japanese Society of Nephrology (JSN), between October 30 and December 27 in 2008. The questionnaire covered treatment details provided for IgAN and their outcomes (Table 1). Table 1 Questionnaire 1 good prognosis group, 2 relatively good prognosis group, 3 relatively poor prognosis group, 4 poor prognosis group *Criteria for histological grading from IgA nephropathy (IgAN) clinical guidelines in Japan Results A total of 376 hospitals (31.4 %) (Internal Medicine 284; Pediatrics 92) responded. The mean number of beds in these hospitals was 581. Tonsillectomy and steroid pulse therapy (TSP) A total of 188 internal medicine hospitals (66.2 %) stated that they had performed TSP. Steroid pulse therapy was always combined with tonsillectomy in 72 (38.3 %) hospitals. The starting year for TSP is shown in Fig. 1.