Two investigations found significant associations between isostrain and cardiovascular disease (De Bacquer et al. 2005; Chandola et al. 2008). Age-stratified analyses in two articles (Kivimäki et al. 2008; Chandola et al. 2008) indicated that the association between job strain and cardiovascular diseases
is not as strong in participants older than 55 years. Effort–reward imbalance model Three cohorts, described in four publications, applied the effort–reward imbalance model (Table 2). Statistically significant associations were found in all these investigations. In the Valmet study (Kivimäki et al. 2002), a more than twofold risk, and in the Whitehall study (Kuper et al. 2002), a 1.2-fold risk to develop coronary heart disease ABT-263 datasheet (CHD) were estimated. Within the Whitehall study, temporal changes in exposure (increase in ERI score between phase 1 and phase 5) in men were statistically significant related to the development of angina pectoris (Chandola et al. 2005). Other models Three of the six cohorts that applied other exposure measurements than the demand–control LCL161 cost or effort–reward imbalance model suggested an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease following psychosocial stress (Table 3). One model that is comparable to the effort–reward imbalance model (Lynch et al. 1997) showed significant results, and the other two cohorts with
Dipeptidyl peptidase significant results used indices consisting of several items related to stress. Discussion This systematic review describes 26 articles investigating 20 study cohorts. The discussion of the results is based upon 40 different analyses. The included studies were diverse regarding the investigation into and description of exposure to psychosocial load. Psychosocial factors acting as stressors in daily work are multifaceted, and each exposure model addresses different aspects of a work situation. Besides the aspects addressed in the exposure models described in these 26 publications, there may be also other stressors, e.g. bullying at work or ambiguity concerning work tasks, but
also external factors like noise leading to amplified experience of stress and demands. Presently, there is no agreement (Eller et al. 2009; Bosma et al. 1998; Belkic et al. 2004) whether the two scales of high demands or low control observed separately have stronger effects on cardiovascular health than the concept of ‘job strain’ that is based on both scales, demand and control. The authors excluded studies from this review that investigated only one scale of the stress models since the traditional concept of ‘job strain’ is based on both scales, demand and control. Work stress might also have an impact on re-events after myocardial infarction or on the prognosis of other cardiovascular diseases. Such prognostic studies, however, were excluded from the analyses.