Toxoplasmosis is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water co

Toxoplasmosis is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts or by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts [56]. The infection with T. gondii results in a strong and persistent Th1 responses characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, etc.).

The cytokines produced by professional antigen presenting and T cells trigger effector mechanisms mediated by other cells of the immune system. For example, the IL-12 secreted by dendritc cells enhances NK cell expansion, as well as activation of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell differentiation in Th1 effector U0126 datasheet cells. Both NK and Th1 cells secret IFN-γ, which activates as plethora of antiparasitic mechanisms in different cells [57] and [58]. Such mechanisms include

activation of respiratory burst in macrophages and production of nitrogen and oxygen intermediates that Screening Library price directly kill phagocytosed parasites. [31]. In addition, IFN-γ induces mechanisms of tryptophan starvation in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, allowing the limitation of intracellular replication of parasites [59]. In addition to secretion of IFN-γ, CD8+ T cells also control the infection by recognizing and killing parasite-infected cells. It was already demonstrated that CTL activity is related to protection during the early acute phase right after infection [37], [60] and [61]. Moreover, CTL appears to be the major mechanism of controlling development of symptomatic disease during later chronic infection. CTLs are believed to limit the number of parasites initially encysted, and thus, to prevent cyst rupture and reactivation of acute infection within tissues of the CNS [49]. The importance of anti-toxoplasma antibodies in the context of the disease is controversial. Some studies have demonstrated that antibodies directed against surface antigens may prevent infection aminophylline of host cells [62]. Some

studies Modulators performed with mice lacking B cells showed that those animals are susceptible to chronic infection and are not protected after vaccination [62] and [63]. Those studies hypothesize that parasite neutralization and opsonization are important for controlling chronic disease and to prevent the infection reactivation. However, direct evidence of development of both mechanisms “in vivo” is still missing. Our results suggest that IFN-γ produced by T cell is a major mechanism controlling T. gondii infection in mice vaccinated with the heterologous combination of FLU-SAG2 and Ad-SAG2. We support such conclusion by observing that only the heterologous protocol, which induced activation of IFN-γ secreting cells (IN FLU-SAG2 followed by SC Ad-SAG2) conferred protection.

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