These differences might be explained by different media used for

These differences might be explained by different media used for cultivation because in E. coli deletion of Ecfnr only resulted in selleck chemicals growth defect in some minimal media [11] while there is no minimal medium available, which provides reliable

growth for MSR-1. In addition, not only deletion of Mgfnr but also overexpression of Mgfnr in WT affected anaerobic and microaerobic magnetite biomineralization in the presence of nitrate and caused the synthesis of smaller magnetosome particles, which indicates that the balanced expression of MgFnr is crucial for WT-like magnetosome synthesis and the expression level is under precise control, be regulated by oxygen. Therefore, MgFnr might play an important role in maintaining redox balance for magnetite synthesis by controlling the expression of

denitrification genes, and thus the expression of MgFnr is required to be strictly regulated. On the other hand, since MgFnr serves as an activator for expression mTOR inhibitor of denitrification check details genes (nor and nosZ) under microaerobic conditions while as a repressor on the same genes under aerobic conditions, it is proposed that other oxygen sensors involved in expression of nor and nosZ are regulated by MgFnr. For example, a NosR protein has been shown to be required to activate the transcription of nos gene in Pseudomonas stutzeri[39]. However, our data cannot rule out the possibility that MgFnr is also regulated by other yet unknown proteins and that other genes involved in magnetosome formation is controlled by MgFnr. Anacetrapib Conclusions

We demonstrated for the first time that MgFnr is a genuine oxygen regulator in a magnetotactic bacterium and mediates anaerobic respiration. The expression of MgFnr is required to be precisely controlled, which is regulated by oxygen. In addition, MgFnr is also involved in regulation of magnetite biomineralization during denitrification, likely by controlling proper expression of denitrification genes. This allows the transcription to be adapted to changes in oxygen availability, and thus maintaining proper redox conditions for magnetite synthesis. Despite of general similarities with Fnr proteins from other bacteria, MgFnr is more insensitive to O2 and further displays additional functions for aerobic conditions, which might result from some non-conserved amino acids. Although oxygen is known to be a major factor affecting magnetite biomineralization for decades, the mechanism of this effect in MTB is still unknown. The common observation that magnetosomes are only synthesized under oxygen-limited conditions raised the possibility of protein-mediated regulation of the biomineralization process. However, although MgFnr mediates oxygen-dependent regulation, its relatively subtle and indirect effects on magnetite biomineralization cannot account for the observed complete inhibition of magnetite biosynthesis under aerobic conditions.

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