There were also obvious differences among the cultivars in agrono

There were also obvious differences among the cultivars in agronomic traits (Fig. 1). Kanlow outperformed Alamo, although for most of the agronomic and physiological selleck screening library characteristics there was no difference between the two cultivars (Fig. 1), a result

that disagrees with other studies [24]. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the use of different rates of N and the use of hydroponic instead of field conditions. Kanlow would undoubtedly be the best candidate for cultivation on marginal land with N deficiency. With improvement of infertile lands, cultivation of the Alamo cultivar might also be possible. Lowland outperformed upland ecotypes under N deficiency stress conditions for the agronomic and physiological traits, as was found in another study [24]. Biomass, leaf area, root surface

area, height, net photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were 47%, 48%, 42%, 58%, 30%, and 21% higher, respectively, in lowland than upland ecotypes (Table S1 and Fig. 2). Strong physiological and agronomic responses to the cultivar-by-treatment interaction were also noticed, indicating that for maximum production and optimal performance under multiple N deficiency stresses, proper plantation management (such as choice of cultivars) is required for switchgrass. Based on this experiment, lowland ecotypes can survive under broad N deficiency PI3K inhibitor conditions and may be productive under a wider range of stress conditions, and should be candidates for future genetic and agronomic improvement. However, given the better adaptability of lowland ecotypes to hydroponic conditions, further study is needed. Switchgrass displays broad tolerance to N deficiency stresses by surviving and yielding under stress. The results likely represent a test of two suitable ecotypes over a range of conditions. The information presented here will aid biomass producers in making crop selection decisions. Environmental variation throughout its vast native range has likely led to this adaptive tolerance, which appears greater Montelukast Sodium in current cultivars than in previously tested wildtypes [34]. The present experiments do not directly address competition

in field environments, which will influence both the ability of the crop to establish in minimally managed environments regardless of N deficiency stress tolerance, and the economics of production. Equal attention should be paid to this point, as it also plays a vital role in determining the feasibility of switchgrass in marginal lands for biofuel purposes. More studies are necessary to evaluate tolerance to other environmental variables and their interactions with competitive ability. This work was supported by the project of Scientific and Technological Innovation Ability Construction funded by Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (KJCX201102005, KJCX201101003, and KJCX201103001). “
“Rice (Oryza sativa L.

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