The westerlies are largely confined between ~ 40° and ~ 65°S, and

The westerlies are largely confined between ~ 40° and ~ 65°S, and drive the eastward surface current, initiating a northward Ekman drift that is critical to the formation of the Antarctic Intermediate Water mass (AIW), subducted below the subantarctic surface water. The strong circumpolar geostrophic currents and weak stratification result in the isopycnals tilting towards the surface in the southern part of ACC. This tilting causes the upwelling of deep water originating from the other oceans and also from the deep Indian Ocean to the surface, where they are modified by atmospheric interactions (Jasmine

et al. 2009). This PD-0332991 datasheet upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water to the surface is triggered by the Antarctic Divergence (Jones et al. 1990). The upwelling deep water not only contains high concentrations of dissolved nutrients that support a rich biological productivity but is also supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), which is vented to the atmosphere VEGFR inhibitor and plays a substantial role in modulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Atmospheric

CO2 concentrations can be drawn down and transferred into the deep ocean through a biological pump mechanism. CO2 converted into organic matter by photosynthesis is exported to deeper waters from the upper ocean by sedimentation and vertical migrations of organisms. The westerlies have a large impact on Southern Ocean hydrography, exerting a great influence on both the distribution of sea ice and biological productivity. The degree of variability in hydrographic and biological characteristics is high between the zones and the frontal system (Kostianoy et al., 2003 and Kostianoy et al., 2004). It is intriguing to observe that the response of these two isotopes in the latitudinal corridor between 15° and 35°S is not coherent (Figures 2a,b). Does this non-linear response between δ18O and δ13C values have any link with the prevailing sub-tropical gyre in this

region? Perhaps the complex dynamics in this latitudinal belt cause the non-linear correspondence between δ18O and δ13C. The distinct profiles shown in (Figures 2a,b apparently reveal the signature of the Sub-Tropical Front (STF). The northern side of the STF is generally 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase more saline (Deacon 1982), whereas south of the STF is the eastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), found approximately between latitudes 45 and 55°S (Trenberth et al. 1990). The near-surface property distribution differentiates the ACC water from the warmer and more saline water of the Sub-Tropical regime. Similarly, the response beyond latitude 50°S could be ascribed to the general decrease in the ambient temperature, resulting in a continuous increase in δ18O values, while δ13C values decrease due to reduced photosynthesis in the regions close to higher latitudes owing to the low light penetration ( Lali & Parsons 1997).

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