The obtained images were analyzed by particle-tracking software f

The obtained images were analyzed by particle-tracking software for clot size distributions of removed clot fragments, and for non-lysed blood clot areas as function of time. Based on the experimental results, a probabilistic phenomenological model of blood clot dissolution was developed, in which mechanical forces of streaming plasma are in balance with binding forces of blood cells to the remaining clot. Results:  The clot dissolution rate and maximum size of removed clot fragments were

increased with greater flow rate. Erlotinib purchase A 3.3-fold flow rate increase resulted in a two-fold clot dissolution rate increase, while sizes of the removed fragments were in the range of single blood cells, up to thousand-cell clusters. Our phenomenological microscale model of clot dissolution suggests that thrombolysis is a corrosion–erosion-like process. Conclusions:  The findings of this study provide a possible explanation for the origin of clot fragment formation in the blood clot dissolution process. “
“Microcirculation (2010) 17, 3–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00008.x Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance.

While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small

arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) Ribonucleotide reductase is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation. “
“This collection of papers is based on talks presented at the IUPS meeting in Birmingham, UK last summer, in a symposium as part of the ESM & EVBO program, sponsored by the British Microcirculation Society and Microcirculation. In this issue we discuss new insights into the control of angiogenesis, including regulation of different aspects of endothelial cell biology by the tissue stroma, during inflammatory disease, and active remodelling of the microcirculation.

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