The greater response of systolic blood pressure found with loaded slow deep breathing may be a consequence of the load amplifying some of the mechanisms discussed above. The results presented here suggest that the key factor in reducing blood pressure is deep inspiration and lung inflation. However, one of the most common commercially available devices, RESPeRate, emphasises the control of expiration. It may be the case that any form of controlled slow breathing rate is sufficient to reduce diastolic blood pressure. Alternatively, although RESPeRate aims to control expiration, in order to be able to breathe out slowly XL184 mw subjects need to take a deep breath in, thus providing a degree of lung inflation. In either
case it seems important to have a high level of lung inflation in order to obtain the decreases in systolic pressure that we have Venetoclax supplier observed. We conclude that controlled breathing using this novel and simple
device for 8 weeks is well tolerated by patients for home-based training and provides clinically valuable reductions in blood pressure. Adding an inspiratory load of 20 cmH2O enhanced the decrease in systolic blood pressure, an important target for the reduction of cardiovascular risk in people with hypertension. For such training to be widely used, however, further studies will be required to determine the minimum duration and intensity of training needed to produce useful changes and how long the effects last after the end of training so that the frequency with which patients need to train can be determined. Ethics: The trial was approved by the Ethical Committee for Human Research of Khon Kaen University. Participants received full information about the nature of the study before providing written consent. Support: This study was supported by grants from Thai Health Promotion Foundation, Ministry of Public Health, Graduate School and Faculty
of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. None declared. The authors are grateful to the patients, nurses and officers of the Hypertension Clinic of Srinagarind Hospital for their assistance Cytidine deaminase in the conduct of the present study. We thank Professor David Jones for useful discussions and help with preparing the manuscript. “
“Good muscle strength is particularly important for young people with Down syndrome because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills (Shields et al 2008). The physical component of work tasks can be a problem because of muscle weakness. Muscle strength in the upper (Pitetti et al 1992) and lower limbs (Croce et al 1996) is up to 50% less in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers with typical development and also compared to their peers with an intellectual disability but without Down syndrome. Muscle weakness can also impact their ability to perform everyday activities, including walking (Carmeli et al 2002).