The analysis of variance

of the aroma intensity ratings (

The analysis of variance

of the aroma intensity ratings (Fig. 2a) showed that in the glucosidase-treated wines, aroma intensity significantly (significance level = 0.01) correlated with increasing enzyme dose. Additionally, the perceived intensity of the glucosidase-treated wines highly correlates to the stone fruit (0.01 level), citrus (0.05 level) descriptors; the intensity perceived for the arabinosidase (AO) and arabinosidase with glucosidase (GO/AO) treated wines highly correlates with pomaceous fruits (0.001 level), citrus (0.05 level), stone fruit (0.05) and freshness (0.01 level) (Fig. 2b). Therefore, it seems that wines with the treatment of AO and GO/AO were described with the typical Riesling Venetoclax datasheet descriptors (stone fruit, citrus, pomaceous). However, the tasters did not see an increase in floral, candied, tropical aromas. Interestingly, in the typicality rating, the external control wine “Riesling HBLA” was not recognised as a typical MG 132 Riesling wine by the tasters (rating 37%); the controls (MacC, C1 and C2) received ratings between 57% and 64%. The wines treated with the bacterial enzymes were most often marked as typical (GO/AO and GO200 treatments 78%, GO60 81%, AO 90% and GO300 93%). The major drawback in the results presented above is that a clear correlation between analytical

and sensory evaluation cannot not be made. It is conceivable that due to the low perception thresholds of volatile compounds (Mateo & Jiménez, 2000), significant differences in aroma composition may already be recognised on a subjective level where the corresponding chemical changes are not even detectable/distinguishable by analytical methods. Synergistic/additive effects between aroma compounds resulting in lowered perception thresholds have been described as well (Rapp & Mandery, 1986). Therefore, the question Androgen Receptor antagonist whether a given enzyme is a valuable tool for winemaking may be a matter of sensory and personal preferences rather than an analytical one. Accordingly, apart from a biochemical characterisation, it is most important to understand how an enzyme preparation influences the characteristic varietal aroma bouquet in sensory

terms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the properties of cell-free glycosidases from O. oeni to release aroma compounds from natural substrates like wine and fruit juice. From a biological point of view, this is an essential step towards understanding how O. oeni is capable of releasing grape-derived aroma compounds from wine. It will further be necessary to determine how such glycosidase genes are regulated during the MLF. Further, due to the intracellular nature of both glucosidase and arabinosidase of O. oeni, studies on the mechanisms involved in substrate import will be required as well to gain a complete understanding of the mechanisms that govern the aroma release by wine lactic acid bacteria.

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